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Farmer field schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Hugh Waddington, Birte Snilstveit, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Martina Vojtkova, Jock Anderson, Howard White
  • Published date 2014-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 10
  • Issue nr 6
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Farmer field schools improve agricultural practices, yields and incomes in small pilot programmes, but not in large-scale programmes
  • PLS Description The purpose of farmer field schools is to improve farmers’ skills to empower them to make better decisions. Different programmes have different objectives, but they often aim to reduce pesticides use, promote better farming practices and boost yields or income. Field schools use facilitators who employ participatory, experiential learning methods over an entire growing season. For example, farmer field schools use ‘practice plots’ where farmers can compare results from different farming methods. In contrast to traditional agricultural extension projects, which mainly teach simple practices such as applying fertilisers, farmer field schools often teach holistic techniques, such as integrated pest management. Farmer field schools have been widely used across Asia, Africa and Latin America, reaching an estimated 10–15 million farmers. This review examines the effectiveness of farmer field schools in changing farmer knowledge and practice, and improving yields, income, environmental impact and farmer empowerment.
  • Title Farmer field schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Authors Sean Grant, Amanda Parsons, Jennifer Burton, Paul Montgomery, Kristen Underhill, Evan Mayo-Wilson
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Data
  • Volume 10
  • Issue nr 3
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Home visits appear not to be effective, but better evidence may show some benefits for some groups from some interventions
  • PLS Description This review examines the effectiveness of home visits in reducing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults. Factors that may moderate effects are identified.
  • Title Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Spanish PLS Las visitas a domicilio parecen no ser eficaces, pero mejor evidencia podría mostrar algunos beneficios para ciertos grupos sociales a partir de intervenciones específicas
  • Spanish PLS Description Las visitas a domicilio por parte de asistentes sociales y profesionales de la salud son una intervención de tipo preventivo que apunta principalmente a los adultos mayores. Su principal objetivo es mantener saludables y autónomos a los residentes de la comunidad que conforman dicho grupo etario. Este tipo de intervención preventiva considera estrategias para disminuir una serie de factores de riesgo que los adultos mayores deben afrontar con respecto a la morbilidad y a la mortalidad relacionados con dificultades físicas, funcionales, psicológicas, medioambientales y sociales. La presente revisión analiza la eficacia de las visitas a domicilio en la reducción de la discapacidad, de la necesidad de internación y de la tasa de fallecimiento entre adultos mayores. Se identifican además aquellos factores que pudieran atenuar los efectos esperados.
Forensic nurse examiners vs doctors for the forensic examination of rape and sexual assault complainants
  • Authors Clare Toon, Kurinchi Gurusamy
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 10
  • Issue nr 5
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Forensic nurses provide cheaper and better clinical care for rape and sexual assault complainants than doctor counterparts
  • PLS Description In the UK incidents of rape and sexual assaults are referred to a sexual assault referral centre (SARC). These are typically headed by forensic doctors who conduct forensic examinations, collecting and documenting findings and preparing statements for court when requested by the police. In the United States, the equivalent institution for SARCs are headed by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANE). This review compares the reliability and efficacy of forensic nurse examiners (FNE) with that of doctors for the forensic examinations of rape and sexual assault complaints.
  • Title Forensic nurse examiners vs doctors for the forensic examination of rape and sexual assault complainants
Corporate crime deterrence
  • Authors Sally Simpson, Melissa Rorie, Mariel Elise Alper, Natalie Schell-Busey, William Laufer, N. Craig Smith
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 10
  • Issue nr 4
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Corporate Crime: Laws and Regulations Have Only Small Effects on Corporations
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of interventions to deter corporate crime. The review examines the effectiveness of formal legal and administrative strategies to lower the risk of non-compliance. The authors summarized 106 studies of corporate crime prevention and control.
  • Title Corporate crime deterrence
  • Spanish PLS Delincuencia empresarial: Las leyes y reglamentos solamente tienen efectos pequeños en las empresas
  • Spanish PLS Description La delincuencia empresarial incluye delitos cometidos por empleados individuales y aquellos cometidos por las instituciones. Algunos delitos son infracciones menores, otros son más serios y complicados, involucrando a varias organizaciones, posiblemente cruzando fronteras nacionales. Hay una carencia de estudios de alta calidad. Los datos limitados sobre la delincuencia empresarial se encuentran dispersos, los informes suelen ser inconsistentes y la calidad y métodos de investigación sobre la delincuencia empresarial varían muy ampliamente. La criminología se ha centrado más en la delincuencia callejera en lugar de centrarse en la delincuencia empresarial. Esta carencia ha hecho difícil la construcción de políticas basadas en la evidencia para la prevención y el control de la delincuencia empresarial. La revisión examina la eficacia de las estrategias jurídicas y administrativas formales por parte de los organismos encargados de hacer cumplir la ley, los órganos legislativos y los organismos reguladores para reducir el riesgo de incumplimiento tanto a nivel organizativo como individual.
Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Authors Marc Winokur, Amy Holtan, Keri Batchelder
  • Published date 2014-03-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review User abstract Plain language summary Previous version
  • Volume 10
  • Issue nr 2
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Health and well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children in foster care
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review examines whether kinship care is more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and wellbeing of children removed from their home for maltreatment. The review summarizes findings from 102 studies involving 666,615 children. 71 of these studies were included in meta-analyses.
  • Title Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Spanish PLS La salud y bienestar de los niños colocados al cuidado de parientes es mayor en comparación con la de los niños colocados al cuidado de hogares temporales
  • Spanish PLS Description La colocación de niños al cuidado de parientes – es decir la colocación de niños al cuidado de una familia que tiene lazos de parentesco con un determinado niño – se utiliza cada vez más en muchos países occidentales como una alternativa a la colocación de niños que han sido maltratados en entornos de residencias institucionales o con familias que no tienen vínculos de parentesco con dichos niños y que brindan servicios de cuidado temporal. Esta revisión examina el efecto del cuidado brindado por parientes en comparación con el cuidado brindado por hogares temporales en cuanto a la seguridad, permanencia y bienestar de los niños retirados de sus hogares por razones de maltrato. Los resultados incluyen la salud conductual, la salud mental, la estabilidad y permanencia en la colocación, el nivel educativo alcanzado, las relaciones familiares, la utilización de los servicios y el re-abuso.
  • Norwegian PLS Barn som er plassert i slektsfosterhjem har bedre helse og velferd enn barn plassert i ordinære fosterhjem
  • Norwegian PLS Description Plassering av barn i slektsfosterhjem brukes i økende grad i mange vestlige land som et alternativ til å plassere barn som har blitt mishandlet, på institusjon eller hos fosterfamilier uten slektstilknytning. Denne oversikten undersøker effekten av barns oppvekst i slektsfosterhjem sammenlignet med ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder å ivareta barnas trygghet, stabilitet i hjemmet og generell velferd for barn som har blitt tatt bort fra hjemmet sitt på grunn av mishandling. Utfallene omfatter barnas atferdsmessige helse, mentale helse, plasseringsstabilitet, skoleprestasjoner, familierelasjoner, tjenestebruk og ny mishandling.
  • French PLS La santé et le bien-être des enfants placés chez un parent de la famille sont meilleurs que ceux des enfants placés en famille d’accueil
  • French PLS Description La santé comportementale et mentale ainsi que le bien-être des enfants placés chez un membre de la famille sont meilleurs que ceux des enfants placés en famille d’accueil. Les enfants vivant chez un parent connaissent moins de perturbations dans leur placement et moins d’incidents liés à la maltraitance institutionnelle. La probabilité que la tutelle soit accordée à un parent de la famille est plus élevée pour les enfants placés chez un parent que pour les enfants placés en famille d’accueil. Il n’y a aucune différence entre le placement de l’enfant chez un parent ou en famille d’accueil sur les taux de retour chez les parents biologiques, la durée du placement, le niveau d’instruction de l’enfant, les liens familiaux ou encore le degré de développement et l’utilisation des services médicaux. Cependant, les enfants placés en famille d’accueil sont plus susceptibles d’utiliser les services de santé mentale et d’être adoptés, supprimant ainsi toute implication des parents biologiques dans leur éducation.
The impact of land property rights interventions on investment and agricultural productivity in developing countries
  • Authors Steven Lawry, Cyrus Samii, Ruth Hall, Aaron Leopold, Donna Hornby, Farai Mtero
  • Published date 2014-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 10
  • PLS Title Land property rights interventions improve agricultural productivity and investment in Latin America and Asia, but less in Africa
  • PLS Description Land property rights interventions improve agricultural productivity and investment in Latin America and Asia, but less in AfricaFarmers who have secure land rights can invest in long-term improvements to their farms without worrying that their land will be confiscated. Formalizing property rights may improve agricultural productivity, increase farmer income and improve access to credit. The most common approach to strengthening land rights in Latin America and Asia is to convert communal or non-demarcated rural land to freehold title, then register rights to the land in an official registry. In Africa, the more common approach is to demarcate and register existing customary rights. Underlying ownership remains with the state, and land sales are often restricted. This review examines the evidence on the impacts of such interventions on agricultural and livelihood outcomes in rural areas in low and middle-income countries.
  • Title The impact of land property rights interventions on investment and agricultural productivity in developing countries
Restorative justice conferencing (RJC) using face-to-face meetings of offenders and victims: effects on offender recidivism and victim satisfaction
  • Authors Heather Strang, Lawrence W. Sherman, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Daniel Woods, Barak Ariel
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 9
  • Issue nr 12
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Face-to-face Restorative Justice conferences are cost-effective in reducing reoffending and increasing victim satisfaction
  • PLS Description Face-to-face Restorative Justice Conferences (RJCs) between offenders and victims have a modest but highly cost-effective impact on reoffending. Victim's satisfaction with the handling of their cases is consistently higher among those who attend RJCs, compared to those dealt with solely by standard criminal justice processes, usually the courts.
  • Title Restorative justice conferencing (RJC) using face-to-face meetings of offenders and victims: effects on offender recidivism and victim satisfaction
  • Spanish PLS Las reuniones de justicia restaurativa en persona son eficaces en función de los costos para reducir la reincidencia y aumentar la satisfacción de las víctimas
  • Spanish PLS Description Los enfoques de justicia restaurativa intentan más bien reparar los daños causados por un crimen, en vez de perjudicar al delincuente. Esta revisión incluye las RJR en persona en las cuales el delincuente se reúne con las víctimas del crimen para discutir el delito y sus consecuencias. Durante las RJR en persona, los participantes describen su conexión con el crimen, las víctimas describen el daño que se les causó, y todos -incluyendo al delincuente- hablan sobre cómo se podría reparar el daño. Esta revisión compara los efectos de las Reuniones de Justicia Restaurativa en persona, con la justicia penal estándar por sí sola, sobre (a) reincidencia en un período de dos años después de la resolución del caso y (b) medidas de satisfacción de la víctima.
Post-basic technical and vocational education and training (TVET) interventions to improve employability and employment of TVET graduates in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Janice Tripney, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Mark Newman, Kimberly Hovish, Chris Brown, Katarzyna T. Steinka-Fry, Eric Wilkey
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 9
  • PLS Title Technical and vocational education and training for young people has a small positive effect on employment outcomes.
  • PLS Description Many young people in developing countries work in low quality jobs that have low potential for career development or supporting economic growth. This is particularly problematic for developing countries given the continually significant labour productivity gap between developing and developed regions. With increasing emphasis on work and skills based solutions to economic completion and poverty there is a renewed focus on TVET. This review examines the effectiveness of these TVET interventions on employment and employability outcomes of young people in low- and middle-income countries, and which factors may moderate these effects.
  • Title Post-basic technical and vocational education and training (TVET) interventions to improve employability and employment of TVET graduates in low- and middle-income countries
Relative effectiveness of conditional and unconditional cash transfers for schooling outcomes in developing countries
  • Authors Sarah Baird, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Berk Ozler, Michael Woolcock
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 9
  • Issue nr 8
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Enforcing conditions makes cash transfers more effective in increasing enrolments
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of conditional and unconditional cash transfer programmes on education outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review summarizes findings from 35 studies.
  • Title Relative effectiveness of conditional and unconditional cash transfers for schooling outcomes in developing countries
'Scared straight' and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency
  • Authors Anthony Petrosino, John Buehler, Carolyn Turpin-Petrosino
  • Published date 2013-05-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Protocol Review Plain language summary Previous version
  • Volume 9
  • PLS Title Scared straight programs result in more crime
  • PLS Description Scared straight programs involve organised visits to prison by juvenile delinquents or children at risk of committing crime, also called pre-delinquents. Scared straight and similar programs are promoted as a crime prevention strategy, identifying children at risk of committing crime to discourage them from any future criminal conduct. This review assesses the effect of these programs on criminal behaviours by juvenile delinquents or pre-delinquents.
  • Title 'Scared straight' and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency
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