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Search Result: 80 Records found
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Factors associated with youth gang membership in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Angela Higginson, Kathryn Benier, Yulia Shenderovich, Laura Bedford, Lorraine Mazerolle, Joseph Murray
  • Published date 2018-11-29
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Evidence shows which factors predict gang membership in low- and middle-income countries, but more studies needed
  • PLS Description Youth gang membership is associated with delinquency, violent crime and trafficking – and gang members are themselves frequently the victims of these offences. Yet youth gangs can also provide a form of social capital, a sense of belonging and purpose to disenfranchised youth. This review identifies the factors associated with young people joining gangs, and the differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved youth. Understanding these associations is essential to reduce the levels of gang membership and the incidence of related violence.
  • Title Factors associated with youth gang membership in low- and middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.11
Small class sizes for improving student achievement in primary and secondary schools
  • Authors Trine Filges, Christoffer Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Bjørn Christian Viinholt Nielsen
  • Published date 2018-10-11
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Data
  • PLS Title Small class size has at best a small effect on academic achievement
  • PLS Description Increasing class size is one of the key variables that policy makers can use to control spending on education. But the consensus among many in education research is that smaller classes are effective in improving student achievement which has led to a policy of class size reductions in a number of US states, the UK, and the Netherlands. This policy is disputed by those who argue that the effects of class size reduction are only modest and that there are other more cost-effective strategies for improving educational standards. Despite the important policy and practice implications of the topic, the research literature on the educational effects of class-size differences has not been clear. This review systematically reports findings from relevant studies that measure the effects of class size on academic achievement.
  • Title Small class sizes for improving student achievement in primary and secondary schools
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.10
Recovery schools for improving behavioral and academic outcomes among students in recovery from substance use disorders
  • Authors Emily A. Hennessy, Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Andrew J. Finch, Nila Sathe, Shannon Kugley
  • Published date 2018-10-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title There is insufficient evidence to know whether recovery high schools and collegiate recovery communities are effective
  • PLS Description Based on the results of one study, recovery high schools (RHSs) may reduce high school students’ school absenteeism, marijuana use, and other drug use, and increase abstinence from drugs; but RHSs may be no better or worse than other high schools in improving grades, reducing truancy, or reducing alcohol use. It is unclear whether collegiate recovery communities (CRCs) are effective in promoting academic success and reducing substance use among college students.
  • Title Recovery schools for improving behavioral and academic outcomes among students in recovery from substance use disorders
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.9
Do evidence summaries increase health policy-makers’ use of evidence from systematic reviews?
  • Authors Jennifer Petkovic, Vivian Welch, Marie Helena Jacob, Manosila Yoganathan, Ana Patricia Ayala, Heather Cunningham, Peter Tugwell
  • Published date 2018-09-10
  • Coordinating group(s) Knowledge Translation and Implementation
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Policy briefs make systematic reviews easier to understand but little evidence of impact on use of study findings
  • PLS Description Systematic reviews are long and technical documents that may be hard for policymakers to use when making decisions. Evidence summaries are short documents that describe research findings in systematic reviews. These summaries may simplify the use of systematic reviews. Other names for evidence reviews are policy briefs, evidence briefs, summaries of findings, or plain language summaries. The goal of this review was to learn whether evidence summaries help policymakers use evidence from systematic reviews. This review also aimed to identify the best ways to present the evidence summary to increase the use of evidence.
  • Title Do evidence summaries increase health policy-makers’ use of evidence from systematic reviews?
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.8
Citizen engagement improves access to public services in low- and middle-income countries, but evidence on development outcomes is limited
  • Authors Hugh Waddington, Ada Sonnenfeld, Juliette Finetti, Marie Gaarder, Denny John, Jennifer Stevenson
  • Published date 2019-08-02
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Plain language summary
  • Title Citizen engagement improves access to public services in low- and middle-income countries, but evidence on development outcomes is limited
  • Library Image Library Image
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Citizen engagement improves access to public services in low- and middle-income countries, but evidence on development outcomes is limited

    Interventions promoting citizen engagement in public service management involve participation, inclusion, transparency and accountability (PITA) mechanisms. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), these interventions are effective in improving active citizenship and service delivery, and may improve the responsiveness of service provider staff for services provided directly by public servants (for example, in health).

    In contrast, interventions providing information to stimulate pressure on politicians are not usually effective in improving provider response or service delivery. There is insufficient evidence to conclude whether these interventions are effective in improving wellbeing or the relationship between citizens and the state.

    What is this review about?

    Failures in governance lead to the exclusion of large portions of society from public services and to waste, fraud and corruption. This review assesses evidence for interventions promoting better governance of public services: participation (participatory planning), inclusion (involvement of marginalised groups), transparency (information about citizen rights or performance of public officials), and accountability (citizen feedback) mechanisms, known collectively as PITA mechanisms.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of interventions to promote citizen engagement in public service management. The review synthesises evidence from 35 impact evaluations and 36 related studies of interventions promoting participation, inclusion, transparency and accountability (PITA) mechanisms.

    What studies are included?

    The review includes impact evaluations relating to 35 PITA programmes from 20 LMICs. In addition, 36 qualitative and programmatic documents were included to strengthen understanding of implementation context and programme mechanisms.

    What are the main findings of this review?

    Citizen engagement interventions (i) are usually effective in improving intermediate user engagement outcomes, for example, meeting attendance and contributions to community funds; (ii) improve access to and quality of services but not service use outcomes; (iii) can lead to improvements in some wellbeing outcomes such as health and productive outcomes; (iv) may improve tax collection; but (v) do not usually lead to changes in provider action outcomes such as public spending, staff motivation and corruption. There may be an exception where there is direct interaction between citizens and service providers in the regular delivery of services. Interventions providing performance information do not generally improve access or lead to improvements in service quality.

    Only interventions focused on services delivered by front-line staff (e.g., in health) achieve positive outcomes. Those delivered without public interaction (e.g., roads) do not. However, engagement with civil society organisations and interest groups may lead to better outcomes for services accessed independently of providers. Inclusive citizen engagement programmes have at least as big an effect on user engagement and access to services as less inclusive approaches.

    Many interventions experienced challenges stemming from a lack of positive engagement with supply-side actors, whose power the interventions often sought to diminish. Interventions implemented with the strong support of the targeted service providers were better able to realise positive impacts.

    Approaches to citizen-service provider engagement appear to work more effectively when implemented through phased, facilitated collaborative processes rather than one-off accountability meetings that are seen as confrontational.

    Only four studies present any data on intervention costs. This limited the potential for any analysis of comparisons across programmes and settings.

    In interpreting the findings, it must be noted that each individual outcome is reported in only a few studies and that included studies have important methodological weaknesses with risks of bias arising from weak design, analysis and reporting.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    For policy and programme managers: A collaborative rather than confrontational approach with the service providers whose services are under scrutiny is more likely to be effective. Engaging communities may require using civil society organisations to facilitate the community’s participation. Programme design should ensure positive engagement with supply-side actors within the intervention setting.

    For researchers: More high-quality studies are needed, comparing different approaches to improving service delivery, paying attention to complete description of the different approaches being compared. Since implementation is a crucial factor, mixed methods studies should be the norm, and will help focus on equity considerations which have been neglected. Finally, there should be standardisation of indicators in PITA studies.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies up to March 2018. This Campbell systematic review was published in June 2019.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/cl2.1025
What are the effects of 'Teach For America' on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA?
  • Authors Herbert Turner, Mackson Ncube, Annette Turner, Robert Boruch, Nneka Ibekwe
  • Published date 2018-06-25
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Other
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title There are too few well-designed studies to know the effects of Teach for America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA
  • PLS Description There are too few well-designed studies to know the effects of Teach for America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA Teach for America (TFA) is an alternate route teacher preparation program that aims to address the decades-long shortage of effective teachers in many rural and urban public schools for kindergarten through 12th grade (K–12), that serve the highest proportions of high-poverty students across the USA. This review finds that are very few studies – just four – which reliably measure the effects of TFA on learning outcomes, so that no firm conclusions may be drawn. This systematic review evaluated the impact of TFA prepared teachers (corps members) relative to novice teachers and alumni relative to veteran teachers on K-12 student outcomes in Math, English Language Arts (ELA), and Science.
  • Title What are the effects of 'Teach For America' on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA?
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.7
Deployment of personnel to military operations: impact on mental health and social functioning
  • Authors Martin Bøg, Trine Filges, Anne Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Other Data
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Deployment to military operations negatively affects the mental health functioning of deployed military personnel
  • PLS Description When military personnel are deployed to military operations abroad they face an increased risk of physical harm, and an increased risk of adverse shocks to their mental health. The primary condition under consideration is deployment to an international military operation. Deployment to a military operation is not a uniform condition; rather, it covers a range of scenarios. Military deployment is defined as performing military service in an operation at a location outside the home country for a limited time period, pursuant to orders. The review included studies that reported outcomes for individuals who had been deployed. This review looked at the effect of deployment on mental health outcomes. The mental health outcomes are: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatisation disorders) and substance-related disorders. By identifying the major effects of deployment on mental health and quantifying these effects, the review can inform policy development on deployment and military activity as well as post-deployment support for veterans. In this way the review enables decision-makers to prioritise key areas.
  • Title Deployment of personnel to military operations: impact on mental health and social functioning
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.6
Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • Authors David B. Wilson, Iain Brennan, Ajima Olaghere
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Police-led diversion of low-risk youth reduces their future contact with the justice system
  • PLS Description Youth misconduct and misbehavior is a normal part of adolescence and that misbehavior sometimes crosses the line from disruptive or problematic to delinquent. Nationally representative surveys of youth in the USA have indicated that minor delinquent behavior is normative, particularly for boys. The normative nature of minor delinquent behavior raises the question of how police should respond to minor delinquent behavior in a way that is corrective, but also avoids involving the youth in the criminal justice system beyond what will be effective in reducing future misbehavior. Police diversion schemes are a collection of strategies police can apply as an alternative to court processing of youth. Diversion as an option is popular among law enforcement officers, as it provides an option between ignoring youth engaged in minor wrongdoing and formally charging such youth with a crime. Police-led diversion has the potential to to reduce reoffending by limiting the exposure of low-risk youth to potentially harmful effects of engagement with the criminal justice system. This review examined whether police-led diversion and traditional processing of youth have different effects on rates of official delinquency.
  • Title Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.5
Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low- and lower-middle-income countries
  • Authors David J. Hemming, Ephraim W. Chirwa, Andrew Dorward, Holly J. Ruffhead, Rachel Hill, Janice Osborn, Laurenz Langer, Luke Harman, Hiro Asaoka, Chris Coffey, Daniel Phillips
  • Published date 2018-05-28
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Agricultural input subsidies raise input use, yields and farm income
  • PLS Description Greater use of improved seeds and inorganic fertilisers, and increased mechanisation, could boost agricultural productivity in some low- or lower-middle-income countries, but there is disagreement about whether subsidising these inputs is an effective way to stimulate their use. This review examines the evidence for impacts of input subsidies on agricultural productivity, beneficiary incomes and welfare, consumer welfare and wider economic growth.
  • Title Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low- and lower-middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.4
Reducing unemployment benefit duration to increase job-finding rates
  • Authors Trine Filges, Anders Bruun Jonassen, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2018-02-28
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Reducing the maximum duration of unemployment benefits increases the job finding rate of the unemployed
  • PLS Description Policymakers may wish to reduce the generosity of the unemployment benefits system in order to reduce unemployment levels. Reducing benefit levels may be politically more difficult than shortening the length of the unemployment benefit eligibility period to create work incentives for the unemployed. This review summarizes studies that measure the effects of shortening the maximum duration of unemployment benefit entitlement on job finding rates.
  • Title Reducing unemployment benefit duration to increase job-finding rates
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.2
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