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Do evidence summaries increase health policy-makers’ use of evidence from systematic reviews?
  • Authors Jennifer Petkovic, Vivian Welch, Marie Helena Jacob, Manosila Yoganathan, Ana Patricia Ayala, Heather Cunningham, Peter Tugwell
  • Published date 2018-09-10
  • Coordinating group(s) Knowledge Translation and Implementation
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Policy briefs make systematic reviews easier to understand but little evidence of impact on use of study findings
  • PLS Description Systematic reviews are long and technical documents that may be hard for policymakers to use when making decisions. Evidence summaries are short documents that describe research findings in systematic reviews. These summaries may simplify the use of systematic reviews. Other names for evidence reviews are policy briefs, evidence briefs, summaries of findings, or plain language summaries. The goal of this review was to learn whether evidence summaries help policymakers use evidence from systematic reviews. This review also aimed to identify the best ways to present the evidence summary to increase the use of evidence.
  • Title Do evidence summaries increase health policy-makers’ use of evidence from systematic reviews?
What are the effects of Teach For America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA?
  • Authors Herbert Turner, Mackson Ncube, Annette Turner, Robert Boruch, Nneka Ibekwe
  • Published date 2018-06-25
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Other
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title There are too few well-designed studies to know the effects of Teach for America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA
  • PLS Description There are too few well-designed studies to know the effects of Teach for America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA Teach for America (TFA) is an alternate route teacher preparation program that aims to address the decades-long shortage of effective teachers in many rural and urban public schools for kindergarten through 12th grade (K–12), that serve the highest proportions of high-poverty students across the USA. This review finds that are very few studies – just four – which reliably measure the effects of TFA on learning outcomes, so that no firm conclusions may be drawn. This systematic review evaluated the impact of TFA prepared teachers (corps members) relative to novice teachers and alumni relative to veteran teachers on K-12 student outcomes in Math, English Language Arts (ELA), and Science.
  • Title What are the effects of Teach For America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA?
Deployment of personnel to military operations: impact on mental health and social functioning
  • Authors Martin Bøg, Trine Filges, Anne Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Other Data
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Deployment to military operations negatively affects the mental health functioning of deployed military personnel
  • PLS Description When military personnel are deployed to military operations abroad they face an increased risk of physical harm, and an increased risk of adverse shocks to their mental health. The primary condition under consideration is deployment to an international military operation. Deployment to a military operation is not a uniform condition; rather, it covers a range of scenarios. Military deployment is defined as performing military service in an operation at a location outside the home country for a limited time period, pursuant to orders. The review included studies that reported outcomes for individuals who had been deployed. This review looked at the effect of deployment on mental health outcomes. The mental health outcomes are: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatisation disorders) and substance-related disorders. By identifying the major effects of deployment on mental health and quantifying these effects, the review can inform policy development on deployment and military activity as well as post-deployment support for veterans. In this way the review enables decision-makers to prioritise key areas.
  • Title Deployment of personnel to military operations: impact on mental health and social functioning
Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • Authors David B. Wilson, Iain Brennan, Ajima Olaghere
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Police-led diversion of low-risk youth reduces their future contact with the justice system
  • PLS Description Youth misconduct and misbehavior is a normal part of adolescence and that misbehavior sometimes crosses the line from disruptive or problematic to delinquent. Nationally representative surveys of youth in the USA have indicated that minor delinquent behavior is normative, particularly for boys. The normative nature of minor delinquent behavior raises the question of how police should respond to minor delinquent behavior in a way that is corrective, but also avoids involving the youth in the criminal justice system beyond what will be effective in reducing future misbehavior. Police diversion schemes are a collection of strategies police can apply as an alternative to court processing of youth. Diversion as an option is popular among law enforcement officers, as it provides an option between ignoring youth engaged in minor wrongdoing and formally charging such youth with a crime. Police-led diversion has the potential to to reduce reoffending by limiting the exposure of low-risk youth to potentially harmful effects of engagement with the criminal justice system. This review examined whether police-led diversion and traditional processing of youth have different effects on rates of official delinquency.
  • Title Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low- and lower-middle-income countries
  • Authors David J. Hemming, Ephraim W. Chirwa, Andrew Dorward, Holly J. Ruffhead, Rachel Hill, Janice Osborn, Laurenz Langer, Luke Harman, Hiro Asaoka, Chris Coffey, Daniel Phillips
  • Published date 2018-05-28
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Agricultural input subsidies raise input use, yields and farm income
  • PLS Description Greater use of improved seeds and inorganic fertilisers, and increased mechanisation, could boost agricultural productivity in some low- or lower-middle-income countries, but there is disagreement about whether subsidising these inputs is an effective way to stimulate their use. This review examines the evidence for impacts of input subsidies on agricultural productivity, beneficiary incomes and welfare, consumer welfare and wider economic growth.
  • Title Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low- and lower-middle-income countries
Effectiveness of interventions to reduce homelessness
  • Authors Heather Menzies Munthe-Kaas, Rigmor C Berg, Nora Blaasvær
  • Published date 2018-02-28
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Interventions to reduce homelessness and improve housing stability are effective
  • PLS Description There are large numbers of homeless people around the world. Efforts to combat homelessness have been made on national levels as well as at local government levels. This review assesses the effectiveness of interventions combining housing programmes with or without case management as a means to reduce homelessness and increase residential stability for individuals who are homeless, or at risk of becoming homeless.
  • Title Effectiveness of interventions to reduce homelessness
Reducing unemployment benefit duration to increase job-finding rates
  • Authors Trine Filges, Anders Bruun Jonassen, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2018-02-28
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Reducing the maximum duration of unemployment benefits increases the job finding rate of the unemployed
  • PLS Description Policymakers may wish to reduce the generosity of the unemployment benefits system in order to reduce unemployment levels. Reducing benefit levels may be politically more difficult than shortening the length of the unemployment benefit eligibility period to create work incentives for the unemployed. This review summarizes studies that measure the effects of shortening the maximum duration of unemployment benefit entitlement on job finding rates.
  • Title Reducing unemployment benefit duration to increase job-finding rates
  • Spanish PLS La reducción en la duración de los beneficios por desempleo aumenta la tasa de salida del mismo
  • Spanish PLS Description Con el fin de reducir los niveles de desempleo, los formuladores de políticas pueden reducir la generosidad del sistema de beneficios de desempleo. Sin embargo, en la búsqueda de crear incentivos laborales para los desempleados, reducir los beneficios puede ser políticamente más difícil que acortar la duración del período de elegibilidad de los mismos. Esta revisión resume los estudios que miden los efectos de acortar la duración máxima del derecho a optar por beneficios de desempleo en las tasas para encontrar empleo de esta población.
School-based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion
  • Authors Sara Valdebenito, Manuel Eisner, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi, Alex Sutherland
  • Published date 2018-01-09
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Interventions can reduce school exclusion but the effect is temporary
  • PLS Description School exclusion is associated with undesirable effects on developmental outcomes. It increases the likelihood of poor academic performance, antisocial behavior, and poor employment prospects. This school sanction disproportionally affects males, ethnic minorities, those who come from disadvantaged economic backgrounds, and those with special educational needs. This review assesses the effectiveness of programmes to reduce the prevalence of exclusion
  • Title School-based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion
  • Spanish PLS Algunas intervenciones para reducir la exclusión escolar funcionan, pero su efecto es temporal
  • Spanish PLS Description La exclusión escolar se asocia con efectos no deseados en el desarrollo de los niños. Estudios previos muestran una asociación consistente entre la exclusión y el bajo rendimiento académico, conducta antisocial y dificultades de inserción en el mercado laboral. Esta sanción afecta de manera desproporcionada a los varones, a las minorías étnicas, a aquellos que provienen de ambientes socioeconómicos deprivados y también a los estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales. Esta revisión sistemática analiza la efectividad de los programas de intervención para reducir la prevalencia de la exclusión escolar.
The effectiveness and efficiency of cash-based approaches in emergencies
  • Authors Shannon Doocy, Hannah Tappis
  • Published date 2017-12-21
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 13
  • PLS Title Cash-based humanitarian assistance approaches can increase food security and are more cost effective than in-kind food transfers
  • PLS Description This review assesses the effects of cash-based approaches on individual and household outcomes in humanitarian emergencies. It also assesses the efficiency of different cash-based approaches and identifies factors that hinder and facilitate programme implementation.
  • Title The effectiveness and efficiency of cash-based approaches in emergencies
  • Spanish PLS Los enfoques de asistencia humanitaria basados en dinero en efectivo pueden aumentar la seguridad alimentaria y, además, son económicamente más eficaces que las transferencias de alimentos
  • Spanish PLS Description Esta revisión evalúa los efectos de los enfoques basados en dinero en efectivo en los resultados individuales y domésticos en emergencias humanitarias. También evalúa la eficiencia de diferentes enfoques basados en efectivo e identifica los factores que dificultan y facilitan la implementación de estos programas.
Vocational and business training to improve women’s labour market outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Marjorie Chinen, Thomas de Hoop, Lorena Alcázar, María Balarin, Josh Sennett
  • Published date 2017-12-21
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 13
  • PLS Title Vocational and business training benefit women on the labour market, but the effects of most programmes are small
  • PLS Description Women around the world often perform jobs with minimal skill requirements, and encounter few opportunities for learning and advancement. Governments and development agencies try to improve women’s skills through vocational and business training programmes. This review summarises evidence on the impacts of such programmes, and on the barriers to and facilitators of vocational and business training effectiveness.
  • Title Vocational and business training to improve women’s labour market outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
  • Spanish PLS La formación profesional y empresarial beneficia a las mujeres en el mercado laboral, pero los efectos de la mayoría de los programas son pequeños
  • Spanish PLS Description Las mujeres en todo el mundo a menudo realizan trabajos con requisitos mínimos de habilidades y tienen pocas oportunidades de aprender y progresar. Por ello, los gobiernos y las agencias de desarrollo tratan de mejorar las habilidades de las mujeres a través de programas de formación profesional y empresarial. Esta revisión resume la evidencia sobre los impactos de tales programas, y sobre las barreras y ventajas de la efectividad de la formación profesional y empresarial.
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