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Search Result: 39 Records found
Page 4 of 4

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The effects of teachers' classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour
  • Authors Regina Oliver, Daniel Reschly, Joseph Wehby
  • Published date 2011-06-24
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2011.4
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Effective classroom management seems to improve student behaviour in the classroom but further research is needed

    Disruptive behaviour by students affects academic performance as students in disrupted classrooms have less engaged academic time. Effective classroom management - preventive procedures which give students specific, appropriate behaviours to engage in - improves student behaviour.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of teacher classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management practice is most effective. The review summarises findings from 12 studies conducted in public school general education classrooms in the United States and Netherlands. Participants included students from Kindergarten through 12th grade.

    What did the review study?

    Disruptive behaviour by students in the classroom is commonly associated with poor academic performance. Teaching time is often wasted trying to control disruptive behaviours.

    Effective classroom management is a preventive approach which establishes a positive classroom environment in which the teacher focuses on students who behave appropriately. This review studies the effect of these management practices on disruptive behaviours, and which of the components of the management practices is most effective.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on public school general education classrooms with students in Kindergarten through 12th grade as participants. Effectiveness studies had to use a valid experimental or quasi-experimental design with control groups.

    The studies were conducted in the United States and The Netherlands.

    A total of 12 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies did not include a breakdown of results by individual grade, which prevented an analysis by grade. Seven of the 12 studies were from the same research group and assessed the efficacy of the researcher’s own programme.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall, teachers’ classroom management practices have a significant positive effect in decreasing aggressive or problematic behaviour in the classroom. Students in the treatment classrooms in all 12 studies reviewed showed less disruptive or problematic behaviours when compared to the students in control classrooms without the intervention.

    It is not possible to make any conclusions regarding what component of the management practices is most effective due to small sample size and lack of information reported in the studies reviewed.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Individual classroom management practices, classroom organisation and behaviour management appears to be an effective classroom practice. However, due to the small sample size of the studies, a definite conclusion about effectiveness is premature. And the lack of rigorous evaluations of classroom management practices means it is not possible to draw any conclusions about which practices are most effective in reducing disruptive behaviours in the classroom. More independent research is needed on the effectiveness of classroom management practices in order to determine the best management practices.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until June 2011. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in June 2011.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' in the right column to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • Records available in English, Spanish
Dropout prevention and intervention programs: effects on school completion and dropout among school-aged children and youth
  • Authors Sandra Jo Wilson, Mark Lipsey, Emily Tanner-Smith, Chiungjung Huang Huang, Katarzyna T. Steinka-Fry
  • Published date 2011-04-14
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2011.8
School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization
  • Authors David Farrington, Maria Ttofi
  • Published date 2009-12-15
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, Education
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2009.6
  • English

    Anti-bullying programs work

    Bullying is becoming an ever more pressing issue for schools, daycare centers, politicians and the public. Everyone agrees that bullying is a serious problem and initiatives are urgently called for to stamp it out. A new systematic review from the Campbell Collaboration has studied the effects of anti-bullying programs in schools. The conclusion is that programs generally work and bullying is reduced on average by around 20%.

    Children bully and are bullied

    Victims of bullying may be harmed physically as well as psychologically, and the consequences may be long-lasting. Therefore, bullying has increasingly become a worldwide topic of public concern and for research. This is evident in the number of studies on bullying, which has risen markedly over the past 20 years. The researchers behind this systematic review wanted to know if anti-bullying programs are effective, and what elements of an anti-bullying program can predict the reduction in bullying?

    Bullying as a concept

    There are many definitions of bullying. In this context bullying is defined as physical, verbal or psychological attack or intimidation that is intended to cause fear or harm to the victim. There is an imbalance of power, either psychological or physical, where the more powerful child oppresses the less powerful child. Bullying involves repeated incidents between the same children over a prolonged period. Bullying can occur in school or on the way to or from school.

    Programs do work

    The systematic review concludes that school-based anti-bullying programs are generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. On average, bullying decreased by 20% – 23% and victimization decreased by 17% – 20%.

    Parents are important

    Sharing information with parents is an key element of any anti-bullying program. Information is often given in parent-teacher meetings at the school about the school’s strategy towards bullying. The researchers recommend that future anti-bullying programs should focus beyond the school itself; the focus should also be directed at parents.

    Other elements of anti-bullying programs that are found to be effective are:

    • Punitive and non-punitive disciplinary methods
    • Improved playground and schoolyard supervision
    • Technology, such as films about bullying and computer games to raise students’ awareness and knowledge about bullying

    Involving peers in conflict resolution is associated with a significant increase in victimization in the studies examined.

    Focus on older children

    The systematic review also focuses on how anti-bullying programs work in relation to different age groups. The older the students are when the anti-bullying program is implemented, the better it works.

    Duration and intensity are crucial

    Results of the analysis show that a good program is intensive and long-lasting. The duration (number of days) and intensity (number of hours) of training teachers to deal with bullying are directly linked to the decrease in bullying and victimization. The same applies for the children. The duration and intensity of the program for children are positively related to the reduction of bullying and victimization.

    New anti-bullying programs

    The researchers recommend that new anti-bullying programs are developed with inspiration from existing successful programs, and should be modified to include the most effective elements. Furthermore, the researchers recommend that new anti-bullying programs go beyond the scope of the schoolyard and that the family be more included in the effort to reduce bullying.

    The researchers believe that future anti-bullying initiatives should bring together leading experts, so all their expertise can be used in the fight against bullying. Furthermore, the systematic review clearly states that future evaluations should measure the children’s situation before and after an anti-bullying program. This should apply to the experimental group as well as the control group to get the most accurate results possible. Finally, the researchers suggest that cost-benefit analyses of anti-bullying programs should be carried out to investigate how much money is saved by having less bullying compared to the costs of the programs.

    Facts about the review

    The researchers behind the systematic review found a total of 89 reports of sufficient quality to be included in the systematic review. The 89 reports describe 53 different studies. However, nine studies did not provide enough data to allow the calculation of an effect size and were, therefore, not included in the final meta-analysis. The overall analysis is therefore based on a total of 44 studies. The 44 different studies were carried out between 1983 and mid-2009 and came from 16 different countries. The included studies were either randomized controlled trials, quazi-randomized trials, age-cohort studies or other controlled studies. The researchers behind the systematic review stress that the various designs all have advantages and problems.

    This article was written by Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen

School feeding for improving the physical and psychosocial health of disadvantaged students
  • Authors Elizabeth Kristjansson, Anna P. Farmer, Trisha Greenhalgh, Laura Janzen, Julia Krasevec, Barbara MacDonald, Jessie MacGowan, Alain Mayhew, Mark Petticrew, Vivian Robinson, Beverley J. Shea, Peter Tugwell, George A. Wells
  • Published date 2006-12-31
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2006.14
Approaches to parent involvement for improving the academic performance of Elementary School-aged children
  • Authors Chad Nye, Jamie Schwartz, Herbert Turner
  • Published date 2006-06-21
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2006.4
The effectiveness of volunteer tutoring programs
  • Authors Gary Ritter, Ginger Albin, Joshua Barnett, Virginia Blankenship, George Denny
  • Published date 2006-06-21
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2006.7
Impacts of after-school programs on student outcomes
  • Authors Susan Goerlich Zief, Sheri Lauver, Rebecca A Maynard
  • Published date 2006-05-07
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2006.3
The effects of school-based social information processing interventions on aggressive behavior, part I: universal programs
  • Authors Sandra Jo Wilson, Mark Lipsey
  • Published date 2006-05-07
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2006.5
  • English

    Education programmes may reduce bullying and conflicts among children

    School-based education programmes aimed at children’s ability to interpret social situations may reduce aggressive and disruptive behaviour among children. These are the findings of a systematic Campbell review of the best international research findings in the field.

    Trouble in the playground

    Fighting, arguments and bullying among school children is a widespread problem. Attempts are often made to counter these social problems by introducing school-based education programmes, which, in one way or another, aim to remedy violent and disruptive behaviour.

    This systematic review examines one such type of education programme: the type that seeks to strengthen cognitive skills and thought patterns among children to improve their ability to interpret and respond to cues from the world around them (so-called Social Information Processing Interventions).

    The researchers examine two groups of education programmes: those aimed at entire classes and those aimed at selected children who either have behavioural problems or are at risk of developing them.

    Positive effect

    The researchers’ conclusion is clear: children who participate in this type of education programme exhibit less aggressive and disruptive behaviour than children who do not participate. The positive effect is achieved in both groups in the study, albeit with some variation in the findings:

    As regards programmes for entire classes, the research indicates that short, intensive interventions – e.g. 8-16 weeks of 2-5 hours a week – are more effective than extended year-long programmes. Extended programmes may have a tendency to become routine and thus have less impact on the students.

    Where the education programmes target children in special education classes, the effect is lesser than in ordinary classes. Pupils in special classes may be prone to many other problems which could reduce the impact of this type of education.

    Conversely, the effect achieved appears to be especially large where the intervention is delivered outside of the regular classroom to children who are at risk for developing later behavioural problems. The researchers maintain that this may be due to the fact that children in the at-risk group have greater change potential.

    Focus on thought patterns rather than on behaviour

    The education programmes in the research review sort under the general concept of Social Information Processing Interventions. This concept embodies a number of different interventions, all of which seek to train children to encode and interpret information and cues in social interaction, and to identify an appropriate response.

    Through structured exercises and activities, the education is designed to build the children’s capacity in respect of one or more of the following six stages:

    1. Encoding of own and others’ cues
    2. Interpretation of cues
    3. Clarifying a goal
    4. Identifying possible responses for achieving the goal
    5. Choosing a response
    6. Behavioural response enactment

    The idea is that negative social behaviour, aggression for instance, may be construed as symptomatic of cognitive deficits at one or more of the above stages. The education programmes are designed to remedy these cognitive deficits.

    Thus, the education focuses on building the children’s cognitive skills and thought patterns rather than on directly modifying their behaviour. In this way, these education programmes are distinct from the many different types of behaviour-focused interventions currently practised. By directing attention at thought patterns instead of at behaviour, the aim is to strengthen the children’s general social skills.

    Facts about the systematic review

    All education programmes in the review were conducted during normal school hours. The research review falls into two parts. One part, which examines ordinary classes, is based on 73 individual studies, while the other part, which looks at selected children with behavioural problems or at risk of developing them, is based on 47 studies.

    Programmes in the first part are delivered to essentially equal numbers of girls and boys aged 4-16. In the second part, the programme participants are primarily boys aged 6 to 16. This difference may be seen as an indication that boys generally make up the majority of pupils exhibiting at-risk or aggressive behaviour. The programmes in the second part also include more children from different ethnic backgrounds than the first part of the research review. Around half of the pupils are from lower socio-economic background families.

    For both parts, the majority of the studies were conducted in the USA, while studies from Australia, Canada, Italy, Finland, Israel and India were also included.

    Other research in the area

    Internationally, a number of social skills studies already exist. However, the majority of these studies address social skills in a more general sense and do not have the specific focus on education programmes adopted by the present research review.

The effects of school-based social information processing interventions on aggressive behavior, part II: selected/indicated pull-out programs
  • Authors Sandra Jo Wilson, Mark Lipsey
  • Published date 2006-03-16
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2006.6
  • English

    Education programmes may reduce bullying and conflicts among children

    School-based education programmes aimed at children’s ability to interpret social situations may reduce aggressive and disruptive behaviour among children. These are the findings of a systematic Campbell review of the best international research findings in the field.

    Trouble in the playground

    Fighting, arguments and bullying among school children is a widespread problem. Attempts are often made to counter these social problems by introducing school-based education programmes, which, in one way or another, aim to remedy violent and disruptive behaviour.

    This systematic review examines one such type of education programme: the type that seeks to strengthen cognitive skills and thought patterns among children to improve their ability to interpret and respond to cues from the world around them (so-called Social Information Processing Interventions).

    The researchers examine two groups of education programmes: those aimed at entire classes and those aimed at selected children who either have behavioural problems or are at risk of developing them.

    Positive effect

    The researchers’ conclusion is clear: children who participate in this type of education programme exhibit less aggressive and disruptive behaviour than children who do not participate. The positive effect is achieved in both groups in the study, albeit with some variation in the findings:

    As regards programmes for entire classes, the research indicates that short, intensive interventions – e.g. 8-16 weeks of 2-5 hours a week – are more effective than extended year-long programmes. Extended programmes may have a tendency to become routine and thus have less impact on the students.

    Where the education programmes target children in special education classes, the effect is lesser than in ordinary classes. Pupils in special classes may be prone to many other problems which could reduce the impact of this type of education.

    Conversely, the effect achieved appears to be especially large where the intervention is delivered outside of the regular classroom to children who are at risk for developing later behavioural problems. The researchers maintain that this may be due to the fact that children in the at-risk group have greater change potential.

    Focus on thought patterns rather than on behaviour

    The education programmes in the research review sort under the general concept of Social Information Processing Interventions. This concept embodies a number of different interventions, all of which seek to train children to encode and interpret information and cues in social interaction, and to identify an appropriate response.

    Through structured exercises and activities, the education is designed to build the children’s capacity in respect of one or more of the following six stages:

    1. Encoding of own and others’ cues
    2. Interpretation of cues
    3. Clarifying a goal
    4. Identifying possible responses for achieving the goal
    5. Choosing a response
    6. Behavioural response enactment

    The idea is that negative social behaviour, aggression for instance, may be construed as symptomatic of cognitive deficits at one or more of the above stages. The education programmes are designed to remedy these cognitive deficits.

    Thus, the education focuses on building the children’s cognitive skills and thought patterns rather than on directly modifying their behaviour. In this way, these education programmes are distinct from the many different types of behaviour-focused interventions currently practised. By directing attention at thought patterns instead of at behaviour, the aim is to strengthen the children’s general social skills.

    Facts about the systematic review

    All education programmes in the review were conducted during normal school hours. The research review falls into two parts. One part, which examines ordinary classes, is based on 73 individual studies, while the other part, which looks at selected children with behavioural problems or at risk of developing them, is based on 47 studies.

    Programmes in the first part are delivered to essentially equal numbers of girls and boys aged 4-16. In the second part, the programme participants are primarily boys aged 6 to 16. This difference may be seen as an indication that boys generally make up the majority of pupils exhibiting at-risk or aggressive behaviour. The programmes in the second part also include more children from different ethnic backgrounds than the first part of the research review. Around half of the pupils are from lower socio-economic background families.

    For both parts, the majority of the studies were conducted in the USA, while studies from Australia, Canada, Italy, Finland, Israel and India were also included.

    Other research in the area

    Internationally, a number of social skills studies already exist. However, the majority of these studies address social skills in a more general sense and do not have the specific focus on education programmes adopted by the present research review.

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