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Search Result: 39 Records found
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K2_THE_LATEST

School-based interventions to reduce dating and sexual violence
  • Authors Lisa De La Rue, Joshua Polanin, Dorothy Espelage, Terri Pigott
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.7
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • Authors Brian Reichow, Erin Barton, Brian Boyd, Kara Hume
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.9
Farmer field schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Hugh Waddington, Birte Snilstveit, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Martina Vojtkova, Jock Anderson, Howard White
  • Published date 2014-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/CSR.2014.6
Pre-graduation transition services for persons with autism spectrum disorders: effects on employment outcomes
  • Authors John D. Westbrook, Carlton J. Fong, Chad Nye, Ann Williams, Oliver Wendt, Tara Cortopassi
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.11
Post-basic technical and vocational education and training (TVET) interventions to improve employability and employment of TVET graduates in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Janice Tripney, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Mark Newman, Kimberly Hovish, Chris Brown, Katarzyna T. Steinka-Fry, Eric Wilkey
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.9
Relative effectiveness of conditional and unconditional cash transfers for schooling outcomes in developing countries
  • Authors Sarah Baird, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Berk Ozler, Michael Woolcock
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.8
Interventions in developing nations for improving primary and secondary school enrolments
  • Authors Anthony Petrosino, Claire Morgan, Trevor Fronius, Emily Tanner-Smith, Robert Boruch
  • Published date 2012-11-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.19
Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • Authors Brian Reichow, Amanda Steiner, Fred Volkmar
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.16
Indicated truancy interventions: effects on school attendance among chronic truant students
  • Authors Brandy R Maynard, Katherine Tyson McCrea, Michael S. Kelly
  • Published date 2012-05-07
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.10
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Truancy programmes increase school attendance, but better programmes and evidence needed

    Truancy has serious immediate and far-reaching consequences for youth, families, schools and communities. Truancy intervention programs aim to mitigate such problems using different modalities to increase student attendance. This review examines the effect of truancy interventions on chronically truant students’ school attendance. On average, truant students who participated in a truancy intervention attended school 4.7 more days than students who did not.

    What did the review study?

    Truancy is a commonly recognized problem. Many governments have put in anti-truancy policies and spent large amounts to tackle the issue. At best, truancy rates have remained stable and often risen. Truancy intervention programs target increased school attendance.

    Truancy intervention programs are diverse; they target many different types of risk factors and use a variety of methods for intervening. Interventions may target individual risk factors, such as school anxiety or phobia, low self-esteem, social skills, and medical conditions; family factors, such as communication and parental support, discipline and contingency management, parental involvement, and communication with the school; and school factors, such as school climate, attendance policies, relationships between teachers and students, and bullying. Some interventions target multiple risk factors across all three levels. The methods used can range from a one-day workshop for students and parents to a year-long multi-component program including counselling, tutoring, and case management.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of interventions on school attendance to inform policy, practice and research. The review summarise findings from 28 studies conducted in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies assess truancy interventions using randomized controlled designs (RCT), quasi-experimental design (QED) and pre-post test design (SGPP). This review includes interventions aimed at increasing attendance with students in primary or secondary schools, with a focus on those students who had attendance problems at the time of the study. Twenty-eight studies consisting of 1,725 student participants were included in the review, and 16 of those were included in the meta-analysis.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall, truancy intervention programs are effective. There is a significant overall positive and moderate mean effect of intervention on attendance, which increases attendance by 4.7 days per student by the end of the intervention. Studies did not measure longer-term outcomes, so we do not know if these gains in attendance continue after the intervention ends.

    There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of different delivery channels (e.g. school, court or community-based), different modalities (e.g., individual, family, group, or multimodal), or different lengths of time (e.g., one day versus a school year). Contrary to popular belief and recommendations for best practices in truancy reduction found in the existing literature, collaborative programs and multimodal interventions do not produce greater effects on attendance than other types of programs. However, small sample sizes and substantial variation between studies suggest caution is needed in interpreting and applying these findings. There are shortcomings in the literature, notably the lack of inclusion of minority students.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Overall, truant students benefit from interventions targeting attendance behaviours, thus it is important and worthwhile to intervene with truant youth. Chronic truant students increase school attendance by on average 4.7 days per student. Given that no one intervention program stands out as more effective than others do, schools can intervene using the resources they have. Despite the significant improvements in attendance by students who received one of the interventions in this review, their attendance remained below acceptable levels, thus we need to continue to improve these interventions and outcomes.

    A stronger evidence base is needed to understand the variations in study findings. In addition, there should be a central repository of effective, and just as importantly ineffective, interventions.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2009. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in July 2012.

  • Norwegian

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Norwegian.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
Effectiveness of adult employment assistance services for persons with autism spectrum disorders
  • Authors John D. Westbrook, Chad Nye, Carlton J. Fong, Judith T. Wan, Tara Cortopassi, Frank H. Martin
  • Published date 2012-03-09
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.5
  • English

    Effect unknown of employment services for adults with autism

    Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may face challenges in employment settings due to difficulties in social functioning. Bespoke employment interventions aim to make it easier for adults with ASD to secure and maintain jobs. A Campbell systematic review finds that there is not yet enough high quality research to draw a conclusion on their effectiveness.

    Autism spectrum disorders

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) refers to a range of neurological disorders that involve some degree of difficulty with communication and interpersonal relationships. Currently, 1 in 88 children are identified with ASD in the United States. Functional limitations caused by ASD continue into adulthood and can create barriers to independent living and stable long- term employment.

    The range of the spectrum for ASD is wide. Those at the lower functioning end often demonstrate physical limitations, may lack speech and are unable to relate socially with others. Those on the higher functioning end, however, are often able to lead relatively independent lives, even if demonstrating social awkwardness.

    Focus on job opportunities for adults with ASD

    Given the increasing number of children identified with ASD, and the number of students with ASD leaving school, attention is increasingly focused on work opportunities for adults with ASD. Adults with less severe disabilities are eight times more likely than those with more severe disabilities to be employed. Adults with ASD are among those least likely to be employed. In fact, only a small proportion of adults with ASD are employed in the USA.

    Studies show that adults with ASD are more likely to lose their jobs for behavioural and social reasons than their inability to perform work tasks. The chances for achieving better job outcomes can be improved by appropriately addressing the specific behaviours common among people with ASD.

    Elements of successful job placements

    This systematic review tries to find out whether employment services for adults with ASD are effective. There is not enough research, however, on the effects of any specific employment programs. One of the two included studies found that participants receiving employment support performed better in finding employment, holding a job, earning higher wages and working more hours per week. The second study did not report any difference between groups in gaining or holding employment.

    Both studies were deemed to be of low methodological quality. It is, therefore, not possible to make firm conclusions on the effects of specific employment programs. The authors recommend that more controlled studies of these programs is needed.

    Although there is a lack of research on the effect of employment programs for adults with ASD, the authors also examined relevant research literature that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Based on qualitative research and related studies, the authors discuss what could be possible elements of successful job placement for adults with ASD. These include: identifying the most appropriate work settings, providing effective on-the-job support, long-term support services for the employer and the employee, costs for support, and positive effect of employment on persons with ASD.

    Facts about the systematic review

    This review focused on employment interventions for adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of ASD, and who were no longer enrolled in a school-to-work or secondary-level education programs. The review considered interventions that centered on competitive, supported or integrated employment but did not include those where the treatment groups were not in an integrated or mainstream format of employment.

    The review focused on one outcome, attainment of a job placement, based on specific information about the duration and/or retention of that placement. One of the two included studies looked at a program where support workers gave guidance on job searching, work preparation and employer communication. The second study looked at supported employment involving jobs located in the local community and guidance from job coaches.

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