Search Result: 11 Records found
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Factors associated with youth gang membership in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Angela Higginson, Kathryn Benier, Yulia Shenderovich, Laura Bedford, Lorraine Mazerolle, Joseph Murray
  • Published date 2018-11-29
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Evidence shows which factors predict gang membership in low- and middle-income countries, but more studies needed
  • PLS Description Youth gang membership is associated with delinquency, violent crime and trafficking – and gang members are themselves frequently the victims of these offences. Yet youth gangs can also provide a form of social capital, a sense of belonging and purpose to disenfranchised youth. This review identifies the factors associated with young people joining gangs, and the differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved youth. Understanding these associations is essential to reduce the levels of gang membership and the incidence of related violence.
  • Title Factors associated with youth gang membership in low- and middle-income countries
Small class sizes for improving student achievement in primary and secondary schools
  • Authors Trine Filges, Christoffer Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Bjørn Christian Viinholt Nielsen
  • Published date 2018-10-11
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Data
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Small class size has at best a small effect on academic achievement
  • PLS Description Increasing class size is one of the key variables that policy makers can use to control spending on education. But the consensus among many in education research is that smaller classes are effective in improving student achievement which has led to a policy of class size reductions in a number of US states, the UK, and the Netherlands. This policy is disputed by those who argue that the effects of class size reduction are only modest and that there are other more cost-effective strategies for improving educational standards. Despite the important policy and practice implications of the topic, the research literature on the educational effects of class-size differences has not been clear. This review systematically reports findings from relevant studies that measure the effects of class size on academic achievement.
  • Title Small class sizes for improving student achievement in primary and secondary schools
  • Spanish PLS Las clases pequeñas tienen, en el mejor de los casos, un efecto leve en el rendimiento académico y pueden perjudicar a algunos estudiantes
  • Spanish PLS Description Aumentar el tamaño de las clases es una de las variables clave que los formuladores de políticas pueden utilizar para controlar el gasto en educación. Pero existe una opinión generalizada en la investigación sobre educación de que las clases más pequeñas son efectivas para mejorar el rendimiento estudiantil, lo que ha llevado a una política de reducción del tamaño de las clases en varios estados de EE.UU., en el Reino Unido y en Holanda. Esta política es cuestionada por aquellos que argumentan que los efectos de la reducción de tamaño de la clase son apenas modestos, y que existen otras estrategias más rentables para mejorar el nivel educativo. A pesar de las importantes implicancias políticas y prácticas del tema, la literatura de investigación que versa sobre los efectos en la educación de las diferencias en el tamaño de las clases no ha sido clara. Esta revisión informa sistemáticamente acerca de los resultados de estudios relevantes que miden los efectos del tamaño de la clase sobre el rendimiento académico.
Recovery schools for improving behavioral and academic outcomes among students in recovery from substance use disorders
  • Authors Emily A. Hennessy, Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Andrew J. Finch, Nila Sathe, Shannon Kugley
  • Published date 2018-10-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title There is insufficient evidence to know whether recovery high schools and collegiate recovery communities are effective
  • PLS Description Based on the results of one study, recovery high schools (RHSs) may reduce high school students’ school absenteeism, marijuana use, and other drug use, and increase abstinence from drugs; but RHSs may be no better or worse than other high schools in improving grades, reducing truancy, or reducing alcohol use. It is unclear whether collegiate recovery communities (CRCs) are effective in promoting academic success and reducing substance use among college students.
  • Title Recovery schools for improving behavioral and academic outcomes among students in recovery from substance use disorders
Do evidence summaries increase health policy-makers’ use of evidence from systematic reviews?
  • Authors Jennifer Petkovic, Vivian Welch, Marie Helena Jacob, Manosila Yoganathan, Ana Patricia Ayala, Heather Cunningham, Peter Tugwell
  • Published date 2018-09-10
  • Coordinating group(s) Knowledge Translation and Implementation
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Policy briefs make systematic reviews easier to understand but little evidence of impact on use of study findings
  • PLS Description Systematic reviews are long and technical documents that may be hard for policymakers to use when making decisions. Evidence summaries are short documents that describe research findings in systematic reviews. These summaries may simplify the use of systematic reviews. Other names for evidence reviews are policy briefs, evidence briefs, summaries of findings, or plain language summaries. The goal of this review was to learn whether evidence summaries help policymakers use evidence from systematic reviews. This review also aimed to identify the best ways to present the evidence summary to increase the use of evidence.
  • Title Do evidence summaries increase health policy-makers’ use of evidence from systematic reviews?
  • Spanish PLS Los resúmenes de política hacen que las revisiones sistemáticas sean más fáciles de entender, pero existe poca evidencia de impacto con respecto a la utilidad de los hallazgos de estudio
  • Spanish PLS Description Las revisiones sistemáticas son documentos largos y técnicos cuya utilización puede resultar difícil para los formuladores de políticas al momento de tomar decisiones. Los resúmenes de la evidencia son documentos breves que describen los principales hallazgos las revisiones sistemáticas. Estos resúmenes pueden simplificar la utilización de las revisiones sistemáticas. Algunos nombres alternativos para las revisiones de la evidencia son resúmenes de políticas, reportes o resúmenes en lenguaje sencillo. El objetivo de esta revisión era saber si los resúmenes de la evidencia ayudan a los formuladores de políticas a utilizar la evidencia obtenida de las revisiones sistemáticas. Esta revisión también tuvo como objetivo identificar las mejores maneras de presentar el resumen con el fin de aumentar la utilización de las mismas.
What are the effects of Teach For America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA?
  • Authors Herbert Turner, Mackson Ncube, Annette Turner, Robert Boruch, Nneka Ibekwe
  • Published date 2018-06-25
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Other
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title There are too few well-designed studies to know the effects of Teach for America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA
  • PLS Description There are too few well-designed studies to know the effects of Teach for America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA Teach for America (TFA) is an alternate route teacher preparation program that aims to address the decades-long shortage of effective teachers in many rural and urban public schools for kindergarten through 12th grade (K–12), that serve the highest proportions of high-poverty students across the USA. This review finds that are very few studies – just four – which reliably measure the effects of TFA on learning outcomes, so that no firm conclusions may be drawn. This systematic review evaluated the impact of TFA prepared teachers (corps members) relative to novice teachers and alumni relative to veteran teachers on K-12 student outcomes in Math, English Language Arts (ELA), and Science.
  • Title What are the effects of Teach For America on Math, English Language Arts, and Science outcomes of K–12 students in the USA?
  • Spanish PLS Existen pocos estudios bien diseñados para conocer los efectos del programa Teach for America sobre los resultados en Matemáticas, Lenguaje y Ciencias de los estudiantes de educación primaria y secundaria en EE.UU.
  • Spanish PLS Description Esta revisión sistemática evaluó el impacto de los docentes preparados por TFA (miembros del cuerpo docente) con respecto a los docentes novatos, y de los estudiantes de TFA con respecto a los docentes veteranos, en los resultados de los estudiantes de K–12 en Matemáticas, Lenguaje y Ciencias.
Deployment of personnel to military operations: impact on mental health and social functioning
  • Authors Martin Bøg, Trine Filges, Anne Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Other Data
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Deployment to military operations negatively affects the mental health functioning of deployed military personnel
  • PLS Description When military personnel are deployed to military operations abroad they face an increased risk of physical harm, and an increased risk of adverse shocks to their mental health. The primary condition under consideration is deployment to an international military operation. Deployment to a military operation is not a uniform condition; rather, it covers a range of scenarios. Military deployment is defined as performing military service in an operation at a location outside the home country for a limited time period, pursuant to orders. The review included studies that reported outcomes for individuals who had been deployed. This review looked at the effect of deployment on mental health outcomes. The mental health outcomes are: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatisation disorders) and substance-related disorders. By identifying the major effects of deployment on mental health and quantifying these effects, the review can inform policy development on deployment and military activity as well as post-deployment support for veterans. In this way the review enables decision-makers to prioritise key areas.
  • Title Deployment of personnel to military operations: impact on mental health and social functioning
  • Spanish PLS El despliegue de operaciones militares afecta negativamente la salud mental del personal militar movilizado
  • Spanish PLS Description Cuando se moviliza personal militar a operaciones militares en el extranjero, se enfrentan a mayores riesgos físicos y traumas adversos para su salud mental. La condición primordial considerada es el despliegue de una operación militar internacional. El despliegue de una operación militar no es algo uniforme; más bien, cubre varios escenarios. El despliegue militar se define como la prestación del servicio militar en una operación fuera del país de origen y por un período de tiempo limitado, en conformidad con las órdenes entregadas.
Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • Authors David B. Wilson, Iain Brennan, Ajima Olaghere
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Police-led diversion of low-risk youth reduces their future contact with the justice system
  • PLS Description Youth misconduct and misbehavior is a normal part of adolescence and that misbehavior sometimes crosses the line from disruptive or problematic to delinquent. Nationally representative surveys of youth in the USA have indicated that minor delinquent behavior is normative, particularly for boys. The normative nature of minor delinquent behavior raises the question of how police should respond to minor delinquent behavior in a way that is corrective, but also avoids involving the youth in the criminal justice system beyond what will be effective in reducing future misbehavior. Police diversion schemes are a collection of strategies police can apply as an alternative to court processing of youth. Diversion as an option is popular among law enforcement officers, as it provides an option between ignoring youth engaged in minor wrongdoing and formally charging such youth with a crime. Police-led diversion has the potential to to reduce reoffending by limiting the exposure of low-risk youth to potentially harmful effects of engagement with the criminal justice system. This review examined whether police-led diversion and traditional processing of youth have different effects on rates of official delinquency.
  • Title Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • Spanish PLS La reorientación policial para jóvenes de bajo riesgo reduce sus posibilidades de ingresar en el sistema de penal más adelante
  • Spanish PLS Description La mala conducta es parte normal de la adolescencia, aunque a veces pasa de ser simplemente disruptiva o problemática a transformarse en algo netamente delictivo. Los sondeos a escala nacional acerca de los jóvenes en los EE.UU. indican que la conducta delictual leve es normal, especialmente en el caso de los varones. Esta normalidad del comportamiento delictivo leve plantea la cuestión de cómo la policía debe responder a ella para corregirla, pero que también evite involucrar a los jóvenes con el sistema penal más allá de lo que se considera efectivo para reducir la mala conducta en el futuro. Los programas de reorientación policial son un conjunto de estrategias que la policía puede implementar para los jóvenes como una alternativa al procesamiento judicial. La reorientación es bien recibida por los policías, ya que permite un camino alternativo entre el ignorar a los jóvenes involucrados en delitos leves y el acusarlos formalmente de cometer un delito. La reorientación policial tiene el potencial de reducir la reincidencia al limitar la exposición de los jóvenes de bajo riesgo a los efectos potencialmente dañinos de verse involucrados con el sistema penal. Esta revisión examinó si la reorientación policial y el procesamiento tradicional de los jóvenes tienen efectos distintos sobre las tasas de delincuencia oficial.
Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low- and lower-middle-income countries
  • Authors David J. Hemming, Ephraim W. Chirwa, Andrew Dorward, Holly J. Ruffhead, Rachel Hill, Janice Osborn, Laurenz Langer, Luke Harman, Hiro Asaoka, Chris Coffey, Daniel Phillips
  • Published date 2018-05-28
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Agricultural input subsidies raise input use, yields and farm income
  • PLS Description Greater use of improved seeds and inorganic fertilisers, and increased mechanisation, could boost agricultural productivity in some low- or lower-middle-income countries, but there is disagreement about whether subsidising these inputs is an effective way to stimulate their use. This review examines the evidence for impacts of input subsidies on agricultural productivity, beneficiary incomes and welfare, consumer welfare and wider economic growth.
  • Title Agricultural input subsidies for improving productivity, farm income, consumer welfare and wider growth in low- and lower-middle-income countries
  • Spanish PLS Los subsidios a los insumos agrícolas aumentan el uso de insumos, la producción y los ingresos agrícolas
  • Spanish PLS Description Un mayor uso de semillas mejoradas y fertilizantes inorgánicos, y una mayor mecanización, podrían impulsar la productividad agrícola en algunos países de ingresos bajos o medios-bajos, pero no existe un consenso con respecto a si el subsidio de estos insumos constituye una forma efectiva de estimular su uso. Esta revisión examina la evidencia acerca de los impactos de los subsidios a los insumos en la productividad agrícola, los ingresos y el bienestar de los beneficiarios, el bienestar del consumidor y el crecimiento económico a mayor escala.
Reducing unemployment benefit duration to increase job-finding rates
  • Authors Trine Filges, Anders Bruun Jonassen, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2018-02-28
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Reducing the maximum duration of unemployment benefits increases the job finding rate of the unemployed
  • PLS Description Policymakers may wish to reduce the generosity of the unemployment benefits system in order to reduce unemployment levels. Reducing benefit levels may be politically more difficult than shortening the length of the unemployment benefit eligibility period to create work incentives for the unemployed. This review summarizes studies that measure the effects of shortening the maximum duration of unemployment benefit entitlement on job finding rates.
  • Title Reducing unemployment benefit duration to increase job-finding rates
  • Spanish PLS La reducción en la duración de los beneficios por desempleo aumenta la tasa de salida del mismo
  • Spanish PLS Description Con el fin de reducir los niveles de desempleo, los formuladores de políticas pueden reducir la generosidad del sistema de beneficios de desempleo. Sin embargo, en la búsqueda de crear incentivos laborales para los desempleados, reducir los beneficios puede ser políticamente más difícil que acortar la duración del período de elegibilidad de los mismos. Esta revisión resume los estudios que miden los efectos de acortar la duración máxima del derecho a optar por beneficios de desempleo en las tasas para encontrar empleo de esta población.
Effectiveness of interventions to reduce homelessness
  • Authors Heather Menzies Munthe-Kaas, Rigmor C Berg, Nora Blaasvær
  • Published date 2018-02-28
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Volume 14
  • PLS Title Interventions to reduce homelessness and improve housing stability are effective
  • PLS Description There are large numbers of homeless people around the world. Efforts to combat homelessness have been made on national levels as well as at local government levels. This review assesses the effectiveness of interventions combining housing programmes with or without case management as a means to reduce homelessness and increase residential stability for individuals who are homeless, or at risk of becoming homeless.
  • Title Effectiveness of interventions to reduce homelessness
  • Spanish PLS Las intervenciones para reducir el número de personas sin hogar y mejorar la estabilidad de la vivienda son eficaces
  • Spanish PLS Description Existe un gran número de personas sin hogar en todo el mundo. Se han realizado esfuerzos para combatir la falta de hogar tanto a nivel nacional como desde los gobiernos locales. Esta revisión evalúa la efectividad de las intervenciones que combinan programas de vivienda, con o sin manejo de casos, como un medio para reducir la falta de hogar y aumentar la estabilidad residencial para personas sin hogar, o en riesgo de quedarse sin hogar.
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