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Search Result: 14 Records found
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Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people
  • Authors Esther Coren, Rosa Hossain, Jordi Pardo Pardo, Brittany Bakker
  • Published date 2016-07-01
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2016.5
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reintegrate street-connected children

    There are a range of interventions to improve the integration and well-being of street-connected children, yet no studies measure integration, education or employment outcomes. There appears to be no effect on and mixed evidence for mental health. There may be reductions in substance abuse.

    What is this review about?

    Millions of street-connected children throughout the world are at risk of exploitation, violence, substance abuse, and health problems, and are not receiving skills-based education. Interventions to promote access to education, healthy and settled lifestyles, and reduction of risks are intended to give this group a better chance in life and prevent marginalization from society.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This review assessed the effectiveness of interventions for improving outcomes among street-connected children and young people, and for reducing some important health-related risks; and to improve access to and integration into society, education, and employment opportunities.

    What does the review study?

    This review investigates the effects of interventions for street-connected children to promote integration to the society, skills-based education, prospects of employment, and health risk education.

    What studies are included?

    Eligible study designs compare outcomes from interventions for street-connected children and young people aimed at reintegration, education, employment, improving health and/or harm reduction, and provision of shelter, versus a comparison group (e.g. shelter/drop-in service as usual). The review identified 13 studies evaluating 19 interventions. All studies were conducted in the USA except one (South Korea).

    What are the main results in this review?

    The outcome for integration was not measured in included studies. The same was the case for education and employment related outcomes - none of the included studies measured literacy, numeracy, or participation in education or skills-based employment. Several studies measured health-related outcomes.

    Five studies investigate the effect of interventions to encourage safe or reduced sexual activity (e.g. numbers of partners, frequency of sex, HIV knowledge, unprotected sex, condom use and rates of abstinence). The results are mixed, lacking enough evidence to support any of the interventions.

    Eight studies report outcomes of interventions promoting safe or reduced substance use. The outcomes used a variety of measures in different studies at various times making it difficult to get a clear overview. The overall effect was mixed; some studies report positive effect and the others reported negative or no effect. Three studies investigate the effect of family therapy on substance abuse and report improvements in some of the measures.

    Eight studies investigate the effect of therapeutic interventions to improve mental health (including self-esteem and depression) in street-connected kids. In general, there is no significant improvement in the intervention group compared to the control group. In some instances, both groups improved from the baseline. Finally, two studies investigate the effect of family-based approaches on family functioning. No differences were found between intervention and control conditions on most of the outcome measures used.

    What was the quality of the evidence?

    The quality of evidence was from low (i.e. for risk reduction in sexual activity and family therapy) to moderate (i.e. mental health improvement, harm reduction in substance abuse).

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    There is a dearth of evidence from controlled trials on interventions to improve integration of street-connected children and young adults into society and providing skills-based education. The evidence from health interventions aimed at

    engaging in safe sexual practices, and at improving mental health vary widely and are inconclusive as to their effectiveness. Some of the interventions aimed at reducing the risk of substance abuse may be effective. Further research in this area will be useful in understanding the effectiveness of these approaches and validating the effect of some of the interventions that are supported by moderate evidence.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for relevant studies until April 2015.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse
  • Authors Kerryann Walsh, Karen Zwi, Sue Woolfenden, Aron Shlonsky
  • Published date 2015-05-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.10
  • Records available in English, Hindi, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    School-based sexual abuse prevention programmes strengthen children’s protective behaviours and increase knowledge about sexual abuse

    School based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse – in the short term – can increase elementary students’ knowledge of sexual abuse and behaviours protecting them against this type of abuse.

    What did the review study?

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and its consequences. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny.

    This review assesses whether: programmes are effective in improving students’ protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. The review summarises findings from 24 trials, conducted in the USA, Canada, China, Germany, Taiwan and Turkey. Six meta-analyses are included assessing evidence of moderate quality. This study is an update to a previous review and covers publications up to September 2014.

    Which studies are included in this review?

    Only controlled studies - randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi RCTs – were included. Studies compared the school-based education programme with the standard school curriculum or no intervention.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Do school-based education programmes strengthen children’s protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse?

    School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse are more effective than alternative programmes or no programme at all in strengthening children’s knowledge about child sexual abuse prevention and their protective behaviours. Children retain the knowledge gained from programme participation, though no study has assessed retention over a period of longer than six months. No studies examined the retention of protective behaviours over time.

    Disclosures of previous and current occurrences of child sexual abuse increase for participants of school-based education programmes. However, the evidence supporting this finding is weak and should be interpreted with caution.

    Are there any adverse effects from school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse?

    School-based education programmes do not cause fear or anxiety among child participants. Parental anxiety or fear was not measured in any of the studies.

    What was the quality of the evidence?

    The quality of the evidence of studies included in this review is moderate due to risk of bias detected for several studies, imprecise data reporting and – for studies using a cluster-randomised design – insufficient data reported for accurate analysis.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse are a valid approach to strengthen the knowledge about child sexual abuse, and the protective behaviours of children in primary schools. The review did not assess whether these programs actually prevent child sexual abuse.

    Further research is needed to more rigorously evaluate existing programmes, their content, methods, and delivery, including the use of web-based or online programmes. This research should also explore the potential relation between program participation and actual prevention of child sexual abuse.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until September 2014.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • Hindi

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Hindi.

Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Authors Marc Winokur, Amy Holtan, Keri Batchelder
  • Published date 2014-03-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.2
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish, French
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    The health and well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children in foster care

    The behavioural and mental health, and the well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children placed in foster care. Children in kinship care experience fewer placement disruptions and incidents of institutional abuse. The likelihood that guardianship is awarded to relatives is higher for children in kinship care compared to foster care.

    There are no differences between kinship and foster care for the rates of reunification with birth parents, the length of stay in placement, children’s educational attainment, the strength of family relations or the degree to which developmental and physician services are utilised. However, children in foster care are more likely to utilise mental health services and to be adopted, which removes any involvement of their birth parents in their upbringing.

    What did the review study?

    Kinship care - the placement of children with a family related to the child - is increasingly utilised in many Western countries as an alternative to placing children who have been maltreated in residential settings or with unrelated foster families.

    This review examines the effect of kinship care compared to foster care on the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment. Outcomes include children’s behavioural health, mental health, placement stability and permanency, educational attainment, family relations, service utilisation, and re-abuse.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines whether kinship care is more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and wellbeing of children removed from their home for maltreatment. The review summarizes findings from 102 studies involving 666,615 children. 71 of these studies were included in meta-analyses.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare data on the safety, permanency and well-being of children placed in kinship care with data for children placed in foster care.

    The review includes 102 studies, all of which were controlled experimental or quasi-experimental studies: 89 of were conducted in the USA, and the remainder in Spain, the Netherlands, Norway, Ireland, UK, Israel, Sweden and Australia.

    Is kinship care more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment?

    Children in kinship care have better behavioural and mental health than children in foster care, i.e. fewer internalising and externalising behaviours, better adaptive behaviours, fewer psychiatric disorders and better emotional health. They also experience greater stability and permanency in their placement and suffer from less institutional abuse than children in foster care. Also, the chance of relatives being awarded guardianship is greater for children in kinship care than for those in foster care.

    Children in foster care are more likely to be adopted than children in kinship care, and they utilise mental health services to a greater degree than children in kinship care.

    No differences between children in kinship and in foster care are found for the utilisation of other public services than mental health services (i.e. developmental services, or physician services), or for educational attainment, the rate of reunification with birth parents, or for the strength of their relations and attachment to their family.

    Some of the findings are context specific, notably the lesser support which may be given to kinship carers compared to foster carers, and whether permanency of the kinship or foster arrangement, adoption or reunification is the preferred end goal.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Kinship care is a viable option for the children that need to be removed from the home for maltreatment. However, policy issues remain to balance the cost-effectiveness of kinship care with a possible need for increased levels of caseworker involvement and service delivery.

    A considerable number of the included studies showed weaknesses in their methodologies and designs. There is a need to conduct more high quality quantitative studies of the effects of kinship care based on robust longitudinal designs and psychometrically sound instruments.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    This review includes studies published between March 2007 and March 2011.

  • Norwegian

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Norwegian.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • French

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in French.

Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused
  • Authors Ben Parker, William Turner
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.13
Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults
  • Authors Gracia LT Fellmeth, Joanna Nurse, Catherine Heffernan, Shakiba Habibula, Dinesh Sethi
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.14
Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape
  • Authors Cheryl Regehr, Ramona Alaggia, Catriona Shatford, Annabel Pitts, Michael Saini
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.3
Cognitive-behavioural interventions for children who have been sexually abused
  • Authors Geraldine Macdonald, Julian Higgins, Paul Ramchandani, Jeff Valentine, Latricia P. Bronger, Paul Klein, Roland O'Daniel, Mark Pickering, Ben Rademaker, George Richardson, Matthew Taylor
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural interventions for children who have been sexually abused
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.14
Parent training interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Authors Morris Zwi, Hannah Jones, Camilla Thorgaard, Ann York, Jane A. Dennis
  • Published date 2012-01-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • Title Parent training interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.2
  • English

    Parent training might help children with ADHD and their parents

    Parent training programmes are psychosocial interventions for parents of children with ADHD aimed at providing parents with techniques they can use to manage their children's challenging behaviour. A new Campbell systematic review shows that parent training might improve the behaviour of children with ADHD and reduce parental stress.

    Although he tries, young William cannot concentrate at school. He fidgets in his chair and he rushes to the window whenever something is happening outside. At home it is as if he never Listens when he is told to do something, and there are often conflicts between him and his parents. William has ADHD, and it is hard on both him and his parents. Parent training, however, could perhaps help William and his parents. A new Campbell systematic review shows that parent training might improve the behaviour of ADHD children, and also reduce parental stress.

    Parent training programmes are psychosocial interventions aimed at providing parents with techniques they can use to manage their children's challenging behaviour. In order to assess the effect of parent training, a research team has produced a Campbell systematic review of the most robust international research results on the subject.

    Promising intervention in several areas

    The systematic review, which carefully evaluates the literature, concludes that parent training appears to be a promising intervention. Five trials that examine the effects of parental training met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, researchers found that parent training may improve the overall behaviour of the child. The review also assessed how parent training affects the parents, and concludes that it may boost their confidence in their parental abilities, and reduce parental stress.

    On other outcomes, the studies were too diverse for their results to be combined. In addition to the general behaviour of the child, the review authors also focused on the child’s behaviour at school and at home. Two studies focused on children’s behaviour at home, and one of the studies showed that there was no difference between the parent training intervention and the control group, while the other study concluded that the parent training intervention group did better than the control group. Two of the studies focused on behaviour at school. One study showed no differences between parent training and control condition, while the other study showed positive results for parent training, provided the child was not also suffering from ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder). In the latter study, the results were better for girls and for children on medication.

    What is parent training?

    Parent training programmes are psychosocial interventions aimed at providing parents with techniques they can use to manage their children’s challenging behaviour. Parent training is based on the philosophy that the adults around the child can positively impact the child’s behaviour. The idea is that the behaviour can be changed if its antecedents and consequences are changed.

    The design of parent training programmes varies, but the structure is basically the same and is based on the same techniques. In one of the vie studies, the programme was designed as follows: parent training was led by two psychologists and was conducted in groups of parents of up to six children in 12 sessions of two hours’ duration. The groups worked with tools such as structuring the environment, setting rules, giving instructions, anticipating misbehaviours, communicating, reinforcing positive behaviour, ignoring, employing punishment, and implementing a token system. Another important element was psychoeducation, i.e. education about ADHD and its symptoms. Before each training session, parents were to read a chapter in a book that was written specifically for this programme. In addition, in between the sessions, parents were asked to practice using the techniques to which they had been introduced. Some programmes seek to help parents help their children with more than just "rules” or school: for example, some programmes include social skill training to help children make and keep friends.

    Future perspectives

    ADHD is a condition that can have major consequences for the individual and society. Among other things, ADHD may lead to poor education and employment in adulthood. It may also lead to an increased risk of drug abuse and psychological problems. Therefore, it is important for everyone to find out how best to treat the disorder.

    For a long time, research has focused on medical treatment, but in recent years, researchers have started looking into psychosocial treatment such as parent training. The review authors point out that the overall quality of the studies was not as good as could be desired.

    Overall the authors find that the evidence base of the review is not sufficiently strong for recommendations for practice. However, the encouraging findings of the review are good reason to conduct enhanced future research in parent training.

    About the systematic review

    • The systematic review was prepared in an international collaboration between one Danish and four British researchers, who have analysed the best available knowledge.
    • The researchers have searched for quantitative studies in the form of controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials.
    • On the basis of a comprehensive systematic literature search, the researchers identified 12,691 references. After screening these, 112 texts were selected for further examination. Five studies met all of the predetermined inclusion criteria and the systematic review is based on these.
    • The studies were conducted in the US (3), Canada (1) and the Netherlands (1) in the years 1993-2010.
    • Studies have between 24-96 participants, a total of 284 children aged 4-13 years.
    • Most children received medical treatment for ADHD at the time of the trial.
    • The review authors also wanted to investigate the effect of parent training on the child’s academic achievement, the parents’ understanding of ADHD, and any adverse effects of the treatment. However, none of the studies reported any data on these objectives.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy for men who physically abuse their female partner
  • Authors Geir Smedslund, Jocelyne Clench-Aas, Therese K. Dalsbø, Asbjørn Steiro, Aina Winsvold
  • Published date 2011-05-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural therapy for men who physically abuse their female partner
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2011.1
  • English

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for men who physically abuse their female partner

    Cognitive behavioural therapy is frequently used as treatment for men who physically abuse their female partner. Findings from a Campbell systematic review, however, reveal that there is not enough evidence to draw conclusions on its effect.

    Partner violence – a widespread and serious problem

    Partner violence is a serious problem in societies worldwide, affecting women in particular. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), partner violence is the most common form of physical abuse perpetrated against women. It is, however, difficult to form an overall picture of the problem, and to do something about it, as this type of abuse generally takes place in the private family sphere and the violence is seldom reported by the victim.

    The abuse can take many different forms - psychological, sexual or physical – but, regardless of the type of abuse to which a woman is subjected, it has physical, psychological and social consequences. This review focuses only on physical abuse perpetrated by men against their female partner.

    Domestic violence also has consequences for the children who witness the abuse. Studies show that the majority of physically abusive men have witnessed or been subjected to abuse during their childhood.

    Widespread treatment – no documented effect

    Cognitive behavioural therapy is frequently used as treatment for physically abusive men. The goal of the treatment is to bring about changes in the way that physically abusive men think about violence and the circumstances which lead to violence, thereby interrupting the chain of events that leads to physical abuse.

    The objective of this review is to examine whether cognitive behavioural therapy helps men to stop physically abusing their partners. However, there are still too few randomised controlled trials to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for male perpetrators of domestic violence.

    About the systematic review

    This review included six randomized controlled trials from the USA involving a total of 2,343 participants.

    Four of the studies compare a group of men who receive cognitive behavioural therapy with a control group who receive no treatment but are released on parole, carrying out community service or under supervision. The other two studies compare cognitive behavioural therapy with other forms of treatment (process-psychodynamic group treatment and facilitation group). Following the course of treatment (a period of up to 26 weeks and a follow-up period of 1-2 years) the level of repeated violence is measured.

    The studies fail to provide a clear picture of the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on physically abusive men, as they point in different directions. The individual circumstances surrounding each study can determine how the therapy is carried out and thereby the effect of the therapy. However, on the basis of the information available, it is not possible to determine which variations are decisive. As the studies point in different directions, the idea that certain variations of the therapy may have both a positive and negative outcome cannot be ruled out.

    Compulsory or voluntary participation?

    The review includes studies where enrolment in the CBT program is voluntarily as well as those where enrolment is compulsory. The findings of the review do not, however, show any clear correlation between voluntary participation and a positive outcome of the treatment or compulsory participation and a negative outcome of the treatment.

Interventions for children, youth and parents to prevent and reduce cyber abuse
  • Authors Faye Mishna, Charlene Cook, Robert MacFadden, Michael Saini, Meng-Jia Wu
  • Published date 2009-06-05
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Interventions for children, youth and parents to prevent and reduce cyber abuse
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2009.2
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Cyber abuse interventions increase knowledge on internet safety but do not decrease risky online behaviour

    The prevalence of cyber abuse is a growing problem. Cyber abuse interventions are intended to develop knowledge and awareness among children, youths and their parents to reduce risky behaviour online. Participation in cyber abuse prevention increases knowledge about internet safety yet does not decrease risky online behaviour.

    What did the review study?

    While there are many benefits from the internet, it is a potential site for abuse and victimisation. The prevalence of cyber abuse – that is activities such as cyber bullying, cyber stalking, cyber sexual solicitation, and cyber pornography – is a growing problem.

    This review examines the effectiveness of cyber abuse interventions in increasing knowledge about internet safety and decreasing risky online behaviour.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of cyber abuse interventions in increasing internet safety knowledge and decreasing risky online behaviour. The review summarises findings from 3 studies: one conducted in Canada and the other two in the USA. The participants were middle school students in grades five to eight between the ages of 5-19 who use the internet or cell phones. A total of 2,713 participants were included in the studies.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on prevention intervention programs administered to children and youths between the ages of 5 and 19. Outcomes related to children and youths exposed to the internet or cellphones. Effectiveness studies had to employ an experimental or two-group quasi-experimental research design

    Three studies were included from Canada and the United States of America. The primary outcomes were cyber abuse of children and adolescents, risky behaviours by children and adolescents, knowledge related to cyber abuse, and negative impact on the psychological state among those who have been victimized by cyber abuse were.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Cyber abuse interventions and preventions are associated with an increase in internet safety knowledge. Despite the increase in knowledge, students who received the intervention did not become less likely to engage in inappropriate online behaviour, such as disclosing one’s name, participating in open chat rooms, or emailing strangers.

    The three studies were evaluations of the following cyber abuse interventions: I-SAFE cyber safety program, the missing cyber safety program, and the in-school cyber bullying intervention (HAHASO). The I-SAFE cyber safety had the largest effect on internet safety knowledge. Both the missing program and HAHASO suggests that intervention did not significantly change internet-related safety attitudes or reduce the number of reported cyber bullying experiences.

    Given the low number of studies available for rigorous cyber abuse prevention and intervention evaluations, the evidence base for these conclusions is weak.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The review provides consistent evidence of cyber abuse interventions having positive effects in increasing internet safety issues but shows that cyber abuse knowledge may not always lead to behaviour change.

    The poor quality of current evidence about the efficacy of cyber abuse prevention and intervention in increasing internet safety knowledge and decreasing risky online behaviour prevents drawing strong inferences from the analyses. Additional research is necessary to explore the link between internet safety generation and risky online behaviour.

    More studies, particularly those that explore the impact of these forms of interventions on younger children as well as older adults, should be carried given that the studies in this review focused only on middle school children in grades five to eight. The effectiveness of the study would also benefit from a larger sample size.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until July 2009.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

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