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Search Result: 169 Records found
Page 11 of 17

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Interview and interrogation methods and their effects on investigative outcomes
  • Authors Christian Meissner, Allison Redlich, Sujeeta Bhatt, Susan Brandon
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.13
  • English

    Information-gathering method elicits true confessions

    Police interrogations may result in false confessions, as has been documented in many countries. Findings from this systematic review indicate that the information-gathering method of questioning suspects increases the chance of getting a true confession and reduces the chance of forcing a false confession.

    Interrogation methods in police investigations

    The interrogation of suspects can be very important to securing convictions of guilty parties and freeing the innocent. There are two general methods of questioning suspects: information-gathering and accusatorial. The information-gathering approach is used in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and Western Europe. It is characterized by rapport-building, truth-seeking, and active listening. The accusatorial approach is used primarily in the United States and Canada. It is characterized by accusation, confrontation, psychological manipulation, and the disallowing of denials. There is much controversy over which method is more effective.

    Confessions in context

    The results of this systematic review indicate that both accusatorial and information- gathering methods of interrogation are effective tools for obtaining confessions in a real- world context. Importantly, studies of real-life contexts do not separate the outcomes according to innocent and guilty suspects. In other words, the outcome measured is the number of confessions. No analysis is provided on how many are true and false.

    In experimental contexts, results indicate that both methods increase the odds of obtaining a true confession from a guilty participant. When compared with a control condition, however, the accusatorial method also increases the likelihood of inducing innocent participants to make a confession. The information gathering-method, on the other hand, reduces the chance of obtaining false confessions.

    Facts about the systematic review

    The aim of this review was to examine the impact of accusatorial versus information- gathering approaches on the elicitation of confessions. The authors conducted two meta- analytic reviews that included: 1) observational and quasi-experimental field studies of actual suspects in which the guilt/innocence of the suspect was unknown, and; 2) experimental, laboratory-based studies in which the guilt/innocence of the suspect was known.

    Five field studies and 12 experimental studies from the USA (12), UK (4) and Canada (1) were identified. The field studies included 1) at least one coded and quantified interviewing/interrogation method and 2) data on confession outcomes tied to the questioning style. All included experimental studies involved 1) at least two distinct interviewing styles (e.g., direct questioning and accusatorial approach) and 2) sufficient data on true and/or false confession outcomes.

    The findings suggest the superiority of information-gathering methods in the interrogative context. Given that the number of participants in these studies is relatively small, these findings should be interpreted with caution.

Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • Authors Brian Reichow, Amanda Steiner, Fred Volkmar
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.16
Cognitive-behavioural interventions for children who have been sexually abused
  • Authors Geraldine Macdonald, Julian Higgins, Paul Ramchandani, Jeff Valentine, Latricia P. Bronger, Paul Klein, Roland O'Daniel, Mark Pickering, Ben Rademaker, George Richardson, Matthew Taylor
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.14
Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health
  • Authors Jane Barlow, Nadja Smailagic, Nick Huband, Verena Roloff, Cathy Bennett
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.15
Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years
  • Authors Mairead Furlong, Sinead McGilloway, Tracey Bywater, Judy Hutchings, Michael Donnelly, Susan Smith
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.12
Interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting in African countries
  • Authors Rigmor C. Berg, Eva Denison
  • Published date 2012-06-28
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.9
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Interventions to reduce female genital mutilation/cutting affect attitudes, not practices

    Girls exposed to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) are at risk of both immediate adverse physical consequences as well as long-term health consequences. The assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the prevalence of FGM/C is hampered by a lack of rigorous evidence.

    What did the review study?

    Female genital mutilation/cutting is a traditional practice that involves the partial or total removal or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is mainly rooted in religio-social beliefs and carried out mainly in 28 countries in Africa on prepubescent girls.

    FGM/C interventions aim to reduce the occurrence of FGM/C among practicing communities. This review examines the empirical research on the effectiveness of FGM/C interventions. The review also examines the contextual factors that may help explain the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such interventions.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the empirical research on the effectiveness of FGM/C interventions to reduce the occurrence of FGM/C practices. The review also examines the empirical research on contextual factors that may help explain the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such interventions. It summarises findings from 8 effectiveness studies and 27 context studies conducted in seven different African countries: Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia/Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on any interventions aimed at preventing, or reducing the prevalence of FGM/C with girls and/or young women at risk of FGM/C. Studies reporting interventions targeting members of communities practicing FGM/C such as religious leaders and traditional circumcisers as participants were also included. Effectiveness studies had to employ a controlled before-and-after study design.

    The studies were conducted in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia/Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.

    The context studies adopted both qualitative and cross sectional quantitative study designs. A total of eight effectiveness studies and 27 context studies with 7,042 participants were included in the review.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Interventions to encourage the abandonment of FGM/C have positive effects on attitudes, but limited effects were found on the practice of FGM/C itself. The limited effects may be due to weak program intensity, implementation problems, and an insufficient number of study participant to detect changes.

    The main factors that supported FGM/C were tradition, religion, and reduction of women’s sexual desire. The main factors that hindered FGM/C were medical complications and prevention of sexual satisfaction.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The eight effectiveness studies which were included in the review had low methodological quality. But while there is doubt as to the validity of the findings, the results point to changes in attitudes. Thus, there is a need to conduct methodologically rigorous evaluations of effectiveness.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2011. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in June 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Indicated truancy interventions: effects on school attendance among chronic truant students
  • Authors Brandy R Maynard, Katherine Tyson McCrea, Michael S. Kelly
  • Published date 2012-05-07
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.10
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Truancy programmes increase school attendance, but better programmes and evidence needed

    Truancy has serious immediate and far-reaching consequences for youth, families, schools and communities. Truancy intervention programs aim to mitigate such problems using different modalities to increase student attendance. This review examines the effect of truancy interventions on chronically truant students’ school attendance. On average, truant students who participated in a truancy intervention attended school 4.7 more days than students who did not.

    What did the review study?

    Truancy is a commonly recognized problem. Many governments have put in anti-truancy policies and spent large amounts to tackle the issue. At best, truancy rates have remained stable and often risen. Truancy intervention programs target increased school attendance.

    Truancy intervention programs are diverse; they target many different types of risk factors and use a variety of methods for intervening. Interventions may target individual risk factors, such as school anxiety or phobia, low self-esteem, social skills, and medical conditions; family factors, such as communication and parental support, discipline and contingency management, parental involvement, and communication with the school; and school factors, such as school climate, attendance policies, relationships between teachers and students, and bullying. Some interventions target multiple risk factors across all three levels. The methods used can range from a one-day workshop for students and parents to a year-long multi-component program including counselling, tutoring, and case management.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of interventions on school attendance to inform policy, practice and research. The review summarise findings from 28 studies conducted in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies assess truancy interventions using randomized controlled designs (RCT), quasi-experimental design (QED) and pre-post test design (SGPP). This review includes interventions aimed at increasing attendance with students in primary or secondary schools, with a focus on those students who had attendance problems at the time of the study. Twenty-eight studies consisting of 1,725 student participants were included in the review, and 16 of those were included in the meta-analysis.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall, truancy intervention programs are effective. There is a significant overall positive and moderate mean effect of intervention on attendance, which increases attendance by 4.7 days per student by the end of the intervention. Studies did not measure longer-term outcomes, so we do not know if these gains in attendance continue after the intervention ends.

    There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of different delivery channels (e.g. school, court or community-based), different modalities (e.g., individual, family, group, or multimodal), or different lengths of time (e.g., one day versus a school year). Contrary to popular belief and recommendations for best practices in truancy reduction found in the existing literature, collaborative programs and multimodal interventions do not produce greater effects on attendance than other types of programs. However, small sample sizes and substantial variation between studies suggest caution is needed in interpreting and applying these findings. There are shortcomings in the literature, notably the lack of inclusion of minority students.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Overall, truant students benefit from interventions targeting attendance behaviours, thus it is important and worthwhile to intervene with truant youth. Chronic truant students increase school attendance by on average 4.7 days per student. Given that no one intervention program stands out as more effective than others do, schools can intervene using the resources they have. Despite the significant improvements in attendance by students who received one of the interventions in this review, their attendance remained below acceptable levels, thus we need to continue to improve these interventions and outcomes.

    A stronger evidence base is needed to understand the variations in study findings. In addition, there should be a central repository of effective, and just as importantly ineffective, interventions.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2009. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in July 2012.

  • Norwegian

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Norwegian.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

The effects of stress management interventions among police officers and recruits
  • Authors George Patterson, Irene Chung, Philip G Swan
  • Published date 2012-04-18
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.7
Effectiveness of adult employment assistance services for persons with autism spectrum disorders
  • Authors John D. Westbrook, Chad Nye, Carlton J. Fong, Judith T. Wan, Tara Cortopassi, Frank H. Martin
  • Published date 2012-03-09
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.5
  • English

    Effect unknown of employment services for adults with autism

    Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may face challenges in employment settings due to difficulties in social functioning. Bespoke employment interventions aim to make it easier for adults with ASD to secure and maintain jobs. A Campbell systematic review finds that there is not yet enough high quality research to draw a conclusion on their effectiveness.

    Autism spectrum disorders

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) refers to a range of neurological disorders that involve some degree of difficulty with communication and interpersonal relationships. Currently, 1 in 88 children are identified with ASD in the United States. Functional limitations caused by ASD continue into adulthood and can create barriers to independent living and stable long- term employment.

    The range of the spectrum for ASD is wide. Those at the lower functioning end often demonstrate physical limitations, may lack speech and are unable to relate socially with others. Those on the higher functioning end, however, are often able to lead relatively independent lives, even if demonstrating social awkwardness.

    Focus on job opportunities for adults with ASD

    Given the increasing number of children identified with ASD, and the number of students with ASD leaving school, attention is increasingly focused on work opportunities for adults with ASD. Adults with less severe disabilities are eight times more likely than those with more severe disabilities to be employed. Adults with ASD are among those least likely to be employed. In fact, only a small proportion of adults with ASD are employed in the USA.

    Studies show that adults with ASD are more likely to lose their jobs for behavioural and social reasons than their inability to perform work tasks. The chances for achieving better job outcomes can be improved by appropriately addressing the specific behaviours common among people with ASD.

    Elements of successful job placements

    This systematic review tries to find out whether employment services for adults with ASD are effective. There is not enough research, however, on the effects of any specific employment programs. One of the two included studies found that participants receiving employment support performed better in finding employment, holding a job, earning higher wages and working more hours per week. The second study did not report any difference between groups in gaining or holding employment.

    Both studies were deemed to be of low methodological quality. It is, therefore, not possible to make firm conclusions on the effects of specific employment programs. The authors recommend that more controlled studies of these programs is needed.

    Although there is a lack of research on the effect of employment programs for adults with ASD, the authors also examined relevant research literature that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Based on qualitative research and related studies, the authors discuss what could be possible elements of successful job placement for adults with ASD. These include: identifying the most appropriate work settings, providing effective on-the-job support, long-term support services for the employer and the employee, costs for support, and positive effect of employment on persons with ASD.

    Facts about the systematic review

    This review focused on employment interventions for adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of ASD, and who were no longer enrolled in a school-to-work or secondary-level education programs. The review considered interventions that centered on competitive, supported or integrated employment but did not include those where the treatment groups were not in an integrated or mainstream format of employment.

    The review focused on one outcome, attainment of a job placement, based on specific information about the duration and/or retention of that placement. One of the two included studies looked at a program where support workers gave guidance on job searching, work preparation and employer communication. The second study looked at supported employment involving jobs located in the local community and guidance from job coaches.

Drug courts' effects on criminal offending for juveniles and adults
  • Authors Ojmarrh Mitchell, David Wilson, Amy Eggers, Doris MacKenzie
  • Published date 2012-02-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Drug courts: more effective in reducing drug use and reoffending in adults than juveniles

    Drug courts monitor drug-involved offenders’ abstinence from drug use through frequent drug testing and compliance with drug treatment programs. These courts are effective in reducing future offending and drug use (recidivism) for adults, but not for juveniles.

    What did the review study?

    Drug courts are an alternative to the traditional justice system. Drug-involved offenders are offered entry into drug court with an agreement that the charges against them will be reduced if they complete a treatment program.

    Participants’ adherence to the program is monitored by the court. Various rewards (e.g., praise, tokens of achievement, movement to the next phase of the program) and sanctions (e.g., increased treatment attendance or urine testing, short jail stays) are used to compel compliance to program requirements.

    This review examines the effectiveness of drug courts, including drug courts for juvenile and drunk driving (DWI) offenders, in reducing recidivism compared to the standard justice system. The review critically assesses these courts’ effects on recidivism in the short and long term. It also assesses the methodological soundness of the existing evidence, as well as the relationship between drug court features and effectiveness.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies are evaluations of drug courts that used an experimental and quasi-experimental comparison group design. Studies must also have had an outcome that examined criminal or drug-use behavior (recidivism).

    A total of 154 studies were included in the review which, of which 92 focused on adult drug courts, 34 on juvenile drug courts, and 28 on drunk driving courts.

    What are the main results in this review?

    There is a large, significant mean average effect from both adult and DWI drug courts. Overall, recidivism rates were just over one third (38 per cent) for programme participants, compared to half (50 per cent) for comparable nonparticipants. This effect endures for at least three years.

    There is a smaller effect from juvenile drug courts. Program participation reduces recidivism from 50% to 44%.

    The effects of drug court participation are highly variable. Programs with fewer high-risk offenders are more effective in reducing reoffending rates. This finding may help explain why juvenile courts are less effective, as they deal with a greater proportion of high-risk offenders.

    Variation in intensity of programs is not related to effectiveness. Courts that required more than the standard number of phases or drug tests were no more effective than other courts.

    The highest quality evidence from three experimental evaluations confirms the impact from adult courts on recidivism, though there was some inconsistency in durability of the effects over time. For DWI drug courts three of the four experimental evaluations produced similar results as the adult drug courts, but one high quality study found negative effects.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Drug courts appear to be effective in reducing recidivism for adults and drunk driving. There is a smaller effect for juveniles, which may be due to the fact that they deal with a greater proportion of high-risk offenders.

    But further experimental research would be useful to confirm the effects of DWI courts, and to examine the variation in effects to identify what sort of drug courts and in which contexts.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

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