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Search Result: 160 Records found
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The effects on re-offending of custodial vs non-custodial sanctions
  • Authors Patrice Villettaz, Gwladys Gillieron, Martin Killias
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Protocol Review Plain language summary Previous version
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Effects of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions on re-offending
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review compares effects of custodial and non-custodial sentences on reoffending. The authors found fourteen high-quality studies, including three randomised controlled trials and two natural experiments.
  • Title The effects on re-offending of custodial vs non-custodial sanctions
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.1
Effects of decentralized forest management (DFM) on deforestation and poverty in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Cyrus Samii, Laura Paler, Larry Chavis, Parashar Kulkarni, Matthew Lisiecki
  • Published date 2014-12-19
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Decentralized forest management programs can reduce deforestation rates but there is limited evidence to assess poverty outcomes
  • PLS Description An estimated 10–17 per cent of global carbon emissions are the result of deforestation. Forests also act as carbon sinks, absorbing carbon emissions from other sources. Therefore, preserving natural forests is an important component of managing climate change. Decentralized forest management programs transfer the responsibility and authority for managing forests (for example, deciding which areas are protected and which areas can be exploited) from central governments to local authorities. Such programs have the primary goal of reducing deforestation, but there is debate as to whether they can meet this goal while also reducing poverty. This review examines the evidence for the effects of decentralized forest management programs on deforestation and poverty outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Title Effects of decentralized forest management (DFM) on deforestation and poverty in low- and middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.10
Effects of payment for environmental services (PES) on deforestation and poverty in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Cyrus Samii, Matthew Lisiecki, Parashar Kulkarni, Laura Paler, Larry Chavis
  • Published date 2014-12-19
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Payment for Environmental Services Have Only Modest Effects on Deforestation
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programmes on deforestation and poverty, and whether environmental and poverty reduction goals conflict with one another. The review summarizes evidence from 11 studies covering six PES programmes in four countries.
  • Title Effects of payment for environmental services (PES) on deforestation and poverty in low- and middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.11
School-based interventions to reduce dating and sexual violence
  • Authors Lisa De La Rue, Joshua Polanin, Dorothy Espelage, Terri Pigott
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title School-based programs to prevent dating violence do not change behavior
  • PLS Description School-based programmes to prevent violencein dating relationships improve knowledge about violence, attitudes that are less accepting of violence in relationships, and awareness of appropriate attitudes to conflict resolution. But there is little impact on behaviour change.
  • Title School-based interventions to reduce dating and sexual violence
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.7
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • Authors Brian Reichow, Erin Barton, Brian Boyd, Kara Hume
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Review
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.9
Cognitive-behavioural treatment for amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)-use disorders
  • Authors Takayuki Harada, Hiroshi Tsutomi, Rintaro Mori, David Wilson
  • Published date 2019-07-25
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural treatment for amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)-use disorders
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Cognitive‐behavioural treatment for amphetamine‐type stimulants‐use disorders

    What was the aim of this review?

    The aim of this Cochrane review was to find out whether cognitive‐behavioural treatment (CBT) is effective to treat people with amphetamine‐type stimulants (ATS)‐use disorders. Researchers in the Drugs and Alcohol Group of Cochrane collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found two studies.

    Key messages

    The current evidence was inadequate to draw any firm evidence‐based treatment recommendations for the client population.

    What was studied in the review?

    ATS are a group of synthetic stimulants and their use has been widespread globally. These types of drugs are highly addictive and prolonged use may result in a series of mental and physical symptoms including anxiety, confusion, insomnia (difficulty sleeping), mood disturbances, cognitive impairments (difficulty thinking and understanding), paranoia (irrational feeling that people are 'out to get you'), hallucinations (where someone experiences something that does not exist outside their own mind) and delusion (a mistaken belief).

    Currently there is no widely accepted treatment for ATS‐use disorder. However, CBT is often the first choice of treatment. It is a psychological treatment (talking therapy) approach to modify distorted thoughts and beliefs, and maladaptive behaviours (things that people do to stop them from adjusting to situations). The effectiveness of CBT for other substance‐use disorders (e.g. alcohol‐, opioid‐ and cocaine‐use disorders) has been well documented and as such this basic treatment approach has been applied to the ATS‐use disorder. These types of therapies are expected to prevent relapse and decrease drug use.

    What are the main results of the review?

    The review authors found two eligible studies. Both studies were conducted in Australia. One study compared a single session of brief CBT to a waiting‐list control where participants received no treatment during the study period. One study compared web‐based CBT to a waiting‐list control. Both studies were funded by the Australian Government of Health and Ageing.

    The review showed that when participants received CBT, compared to waiting‐list control, there was no difference. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that CBT was effective or ineffective at treating ATS‐use disorders.

    How up‐to‐date is this review

    The review authors searched for studies that had been published up to July 2018.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cl2.1026
The effect of microcredit on women’s control over household spending in developing countries
  • Authors Jos Vaessen, Ana Rivas, Maren Duvendack, Richard Palmer Jones, Frans Leeuw, Ger van Gils, Ruslan Lukach, Nathalie Holvoet, Johan Bastiaensen, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Hugh Waddington
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review
  • Title The effect of microcredit on women’s control over household spending in developing countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.8
Farmer field schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Hugh Waddington, Birte Snilstveit, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Martina Vojtkova, Jock Anderson, Howard White
  • Published date 2014-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Farmer field schools improve agricultural practices, yields and incomes in small pilot programmes, but not in large-scale programmes
  • PLS Description The purpose of farmer field schools is to improve farmers’ skills to empower them to make better decisions. Different programmes have different objectives, but they often aim to reduce pesticides use, promote better farming practices and boost yields or income. Field schools use facilitators who employ participatory, experiential learning methods over an entire growing season. For example, farmer field schools use ‘practice plots’ where farmers can compare results from different farming methods. In contrast to traditional agricultural extension projects, which mainly teach simple practices such as applying fertilisers, farmer field schools often teach holistic techniques, such as integrated pest management. Farmer field schools have been widely used across Asia, Africa and Latin America, reaching an estimated 10–15 million farmers. This review examines the effectiveness of farmer field schools in changing farmer knowledge and practice, and improving yields, income, environmental impact and farmer empowerment.
  • Title Farmer field schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/CSR.2014.6
Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Authors Sean Grant, Amanda Parsons, Jennifer Burton, Paul Montgomery, Kristen Underhill, Evan Mayo-Wilson
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary Data
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Home visits appear not to be effective, but better evidence may show some benefits for some groups from some interventions
  • PLS Description This review examines the effectiveness of home visits in reducing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults. Factors that may moderate effects are identified.
  • Title Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.3
Forensic nurse examiners vs doctors for the forensic examination of rape and sexual assault complainants
  • Authors Clare Toon, Kurinchi Gurusamy
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Forensic nurses provide cheaper and better clinical care for rape and sexual assault complainants than doctor counterparts
  • PLS Description In the UK incidents of rape and sexual assaults are referred to a sexual assault referral centre (SARC). These are typically headed by forensic doctors who conduct forensic examinations, collecting and documenting findings and preparing statements for court when requested by the police. In the United States, the equivalent institution for SARCs are headed by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANE). This review compares the reliability and efficacy of forensic nurse examiners (FNE) with that of doctors for the forensic examinations of rape and sexual assault complaints.
  • Title Forensic nurse examiners vs doctors for the forensic examination of rape and sexual assault complainants
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.5
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