Better evidence for a better world

Campbell evidence and gap maps

Coming soon – Campbell EGMs are a new evidence synthesis product. Plain language summaries of our EGMs will be published on this website. The interactive EGMs and full EGM reports will be available in our journal on the Wiley Online Library platform: click here.



Learn more about Campbell EGMs

Other EGMs

Campbell has produced maps on other topics, sometimes in partnership with other organisations.



See our other EGMs
Search Result: 64 Records found
Page 4 of 7

K2_THE_LATEST

Workplace-based disability management programs for promoting return-to-work
  • Authors Ulrik Gensby, Thomas Lund, Krystyna Kowalski, Madina Saidj, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen, Trine Filges, Emma Irvin, Benjamin C. Amick III, Merete Labriola
  • Published date 2012-11-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Workplace-based disability management programs for promoting return-to-work
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.17
  • Records available in English, Spanish
Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • Authors Brian Reichow, Amanda Steiner, Fred Volkmar
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.16
Cognitive-behavioural interventions for children who have been sexually abused
  • Authors Geraldine Macdonald, Julian Higgins, Paul Ramchandani, Jeff Valentine, Latricia P. Bronger, Paul Klein, Roland O'Daniel, Mark Pickering, Ben Rademaker, George Richardson, Matthew Taylor
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural interventions for children who have been sexually abused
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.14
Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health
  • Authors Jane Barlow, Nadja Smailagic, Nick Huband, Verena Roloff, Cathy Bennett
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.15
Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years
  • Authors Mairead Furlong, Sinead McGilloway, Tracey Bywater, Judy Hutchings, Michael Donnelly, Susan Smith
  • Published date 2012-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.12
Interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting in African countries
  • Authors Rigmor C. Berg, Eva Denison
  • Published date 2012-06-28
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting in African countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.9
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Interventions to reduce female genital mutilation/cutting affect attitudes, not practices

    Girls exposed to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) are at risk of both immediate adverse physical consequences as well as long-term health consequences. The assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the prevalence of FGM/C is hampered by a lack of rigorous evidence.

    What did the review study?

    Female genital mutilation/cutting is a traditional practice that involves the partial or total removal or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is mainly rooted in religio-social beliefs and carried out mainly in 28 countries in Africa on prepubescent girls.

    FGM/C interventions aim to reduce the occurrence of FGM/C among practicing communities. This review examines the empirical research on the effectiveness of FGM/C interventions. The review also examines the contextual factors that may help explain the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such interventions.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the empirical research on the effectiveness of FGM/C interventions to reduce the occurrence of FGM/C practices. The review also examines the empirical research on contextual factors that may help explain the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such interventions. It summarises findings from 8 effectiveness studies and 27 context studies conducted in seven different African countries: Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia/Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on any interventions aimed at preventing, or reducing the prevalence of FGM/C with girls and/or young women at risk of FGM/C. Studies reporting interventions targeting members of communities practicing FGM/C such as religious leaders and traditional circumcisers as participants were also included. Effectiveness studies had to employ a controlled before-and-after study design.

    The studies were conducted in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia/Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.

    The context studies adopted both qualitative and cross sectional quantitative study designs. A total of eight effectiveness studies and 27 context studies with 7,042 participants were included in the review.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Interventions to encourage the abandonment of FGM/C have positive effects on attitudes, but limited effects were found on the practice of FGM/C itself. The limited effects may be due to weak program intensity, implementation problems, and an insufficient number of study participant to detect changes.

    The main factors that supported FGM/C were tradition, religion, and reduction of women’s sexual desire. The main factors that hindered FGM/C were medical complications and prevention of sexual satisfaction.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The eight effectiveness studies which were included in the review had low methodological quality. But while there is doubt as to the validity of the findings, the results point to changes in attitudes. Thus, there is a need to conduct methodologically rigorous evaluations of effectiveness.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2011. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in June 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Parent training interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Authors Morris Zwi, Hannah Jones, Camilla Thorgaard, Ann York, Jane A. Dennis
  • Published date 2012-01-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • Title Parent training interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.2
  • English

    Parent training might help children with ADHD and their parents

    Parent training programmes are psychosocial interventions for parents of children with ADHD aimed at providing parents with techniques they can use to manage their children's challenging behaviour. A new Campbell systematic review shows that parent training might improve the behaviour of children with ADHD and reduce parental stress.

    Although he tries, young William cannot concentrate at school. He fidgets in his chair and he rushes to the window whenever something is happening outside. At home it is as if he never Listens when he is told to do something, and there are often conflicts between him and his parents. William has ADHD, and it is hard on both him and his parents. Parent training, however, could perhaps help William and his parents. A new Campbell systematic review shows that parent training might improve the behaviour of ADHD children, and also reduce parental stress.

    Parent training programmes are psychosocial interventions aimed at providing parents with techniques they can use to manage their children's challenging behaviour. In order to assess the effect of parent training, a research team has produced a Campbell systematic review of the most robust international research results on the subject.

    Promising intervention in several areas

    The systematic review, which carefully evaluates the literature, concludes that parent training appears to be a promising intervention. Five trials that examine the effects of parental training met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, researchers found that parent training may improve the overall behaviour of the child. The review also assessed how parent training affects the parents, and concludes that it may boost their confidence in their parental abilities, and reduce parental stress.

    On other outcomes, the studies were too diverse for their results to be combined. In addition to the general behaviour of the child, the review authors also focused on the child’s behaviour at school and at home. Two studies focused on children’s behaviour at home, and one of the studies showed that there was no difference between the parent training intervention and the control group, while the other study concluded that the parent training intervention group did better than the control group. Two of the studies focused on behaviour at school. One study showed no differences between parent training and control condition, while the other study showed positive results for parent training, provided the child was not also suffering from ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder). In the latter study, the results were better for girls and for children on medication.

    What is parent training?

    Parent training programmes are psychosocial interventions aimed at providing parents with techniques they can use to manage their children’s challenging behaviour. Parent training is based on the philosophy that the adults around the child can positively impact the child’s behaviour. The idea is that the behaviour can be changed if its antecedents and consequences are changed.

    The design of parent training programmes varies, but the structure is basically the same and is based on the same techniques. In one of the vie studies, the programme was designed as follows: parent training was led by two psychologists and was conducted in groups of parents of up to six children in 12 sessions of two hours’ duration. The groups worked with tools such as structuring the environment, setting rules, giving instructions, anticipating misbehaviours, communicating, reinforcing positive behaviour, ignoring, employing punishment, and implementing a token system. Another important element was psychoeducation, i.e. education about ADHD and its symptoms. Before each training session, parents were to read a chapter in a book that was written specifically for this programme. In addition, in between the sessions, parents were asked to practice using the techniques to which they had been introduced. Some programmes seek to help parents help their children with more than just "rules” or school: for example, some programmes include social skill training to help children make and keep friends.

    Future perspectives

    ADHD is a condition that can have major consequences for the individual and society. Among other things, ADHD may lead to poor education and employment in adulthood. It may also lead to an increased risk of drug abuse and psychological problems. Therefore, it is important for everyone to find out how best to treat the disorder.

    For a long time, research has focused on medical treatment, but in recent years, researchers have started looking into psychosocial treatment such as parent training. The review authors point out that the overall quality of the studies was not as good as could be desired.

    Overall the authors find that the evidence base of the review is not sufficiently strong for recommendations for practice. However, the encouraging findings of the review are good reason to conduct enhanced future research in parent training.

    About the systematic review

    • The systematic review was prepared in an international collaboration between one Danish and four British researchers, who have analysed the best available knowledge.
    • The researchers have searched for quantitative studies in the form of controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials.
    • On the basis of a comprehensive systematic literature search, the researchers identified 12,691 references. After screening these, 112 texts were selected for further examination. Five studies met all of the predetermined inclusion criteria and the systematic review is based on these.
    • The studies were conducted in the US (3), Canada (1) and the Netherlands (1) in the years 1993-2010.
    • Studies have between 24-96 participants, a total of 284 children aged 4-13 years.
    • Most children received medical treatment for ADHD at the time of the trial.
    • The review authors also wanted to investigate the effect of parent training on the child’s academic achievement, the parents’ understanding of ADHD, and any adverse effects of the treatment. However, none of the studies reported any data on these objectives.
Home-based child development interventions for pre-school children from socially-disadvantaged families
  • Authors Sarah Miller, Lisa K. Maguire, Geraldine Macdonald
  • Published date 2012-01-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Home-based child development interventions for pre-school children from socially-disadvantaged families
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.1
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Home-based interventions do not improve child development outcomes for preschool children from socially disadvantaged families

    The early years of a child’s life are crucial for their development. Home-based child development interventions aim to boost children’s developmental outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of deprivation through educating, training and providing support for parents. This review finds no impact on children’s developmental outcomes, however the evidence for this is weak and more studies are needed.

    What did the review study?

    Young children from a deprived family background are more susceptible to developmental problems and poor health. The aim of home-based interventions is to assist parents in providing a better quality home environment for their children, to prevent or mitigate these adverse outcomes.

    This review examines the effectiveness of home-based interventions aimed primarily at improving developmental outcomes for preschool children from socially disadvantaged families.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effectiveness of home-based child development interventions in improving children’s developmental outcomes. The review summarises findings from 7 studies. Two of the studies were undertaken in the United States each, 1 in Canada, 1 in Jamaica, 1 in Ireland, 1 in an unreported location and 1 in Bermuda.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies are randomized controlled trials comparing home-based preschool child development interventions with a ‘standard care’ control, such as primary healthcare services. Outcomes are effects on the development of preschool children including cognition (thinking skills) and social and emotional development.

    Participants were parents with children up to the age of school entry who were socially disadvantaged, for example: living in poverty, a lone parent or from an ethnic minority background. A total of seven studies with 723 participants were included.

    What are the main results in this review?

    The nature of the evidence makes it difficult to assess the impact on child cognitive development. Evidence synthesis of four of the seven studies finds no effect. But evidence from the other three studies cannot be combined, so the overall finding is inconclusive. Adverse outcomes for parents (for example, disempowerment) were not reported in any of the seven studies, so no conclusion can be reached.

    The evidence did not allow conclusions to be reached for secondary outcomes such as child physical development and parenting behaviour.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Evidence from four studies finds that home-based child development interventions have no impact on the cognitive development of preschool children from socially disadvantaged families. It was not possible to synthesize the evidence for socio-emotional outcomes.

    However, of the seven included studies, the most recent is from 1989. There was insufficient evidence to judge the quality of most of the studies. Further studies are needed, which should endeavour to better document and report their methodological processes.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until October 2010. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in January 2012.

  • Norwegian

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view this plain language summary in Norwegian.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Youth empowerment programs for improving self-efficacy and self-esteem of adolescents
  • Authors Matthew Morton, Paul Montgomery
  • Published date 2011-08-24
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review User abstract
  • Title Youth empowerment programs for improving self-efficacy and self-esteem of adolescents
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2011.5
  • English

    The Impact of Youth Empowerment Programs: Overestimated or Under-Researched?

    Do youth empowerment programs improve adolescents’ self-esteem and self-efficacy? A systematic review of international research suggests that there is not enough reliable evidence to substantiate the popular expectation that these programs are effective.

    Is empowering youth worth the investment?

    Adolescence is an important time to build on young people’s strengths for a positive future. It is also a time of heightened emotions and greater likelihood of risky behavior. Ignoring these key years for young people’s participation and healthy development can have big social costs.

    Understanding how best to support youths to build the attitudes and skills to do well in life is a priority of international agencies, governments and non-profit organizations. Increasingly, youth empowerment programs (YEPs) are embraced as a way to prepare young people for adulthood by improving youth strengths. Such strengths include self-esteem and self- efficacy—in other words, youths’ judgments of self-worth and capability. Research suggests that these strengths promote wellbeing and resilience in many areas of a teen’s life.

    Morton and Montgomery’s review examines the impact of YEPs on self-esteem and self- efficacy of adolescents. Other social and emotional outcomes were also reviewed.

    Many programs, few studies

    Youth empowerment programs involve youths in decision-making processes that affect their lives and communities. These programs may offer opportunities for positive development. The authors, however, conclude that there is not enough high quality evidence to show that YEPs improve youth attitudes or behaviors. The evidence that does exist suggests that YEPs neither positively nor negatively impact self-esteem and self-efficacy outcomes. The authors recommend further research with impact studies using credible comparison groups.

    The authors point out that impact studies with comparison groups are important, though they are not the only way to assess participatory programs. Other types of studies are also needed to examine the complex processes that underlie potential impacts of youth empowerment. Together, these different studies can provide more useful data to inform program and policy decisions.

    Facts about the systematic review

    This review only included YEPs that met certain criteria.  They had to take place regularly and outside formal education, engage youth in decision-making processes and involve a supportive adult. The review focused on the age group, 10 to 19. It only included studies if at least 75% of participants were within this age group.

    The authors’ search identified 8,789 studies. Only 68 were found relevant and reviewed in- depth. Of these, only three studies met all of the review’s criteria. These three programs were similar in terms of the age group they targeted (average age 15-16). They differed in terms of urban versus rural settings, cultural contexts, ethnicity, gender make-up and life circumstances. There was not enough data to look at the role of socio-economic status or ethnicity of participants in program outcomes.

    There was no conclusive evidence regarding the impact of YEPs on primary outcomes: self- efficacy and self-esteem. There were mixed results on other outcomes. Each study showed at least one positive impact among YEP participants. Impacts included improvements in team skills and coping skills and reductions in marijuana use and number of sexual partners.

    These outcomes should be treated with caution, as they are based on a small number of studies with mixed quality.

    Excluded studies that examine YEPs in formal education show more positive program effects than do the YEPs included in this review. This evidence has shortcomings and cannot be generalized. Yet it highlights the need for more research on the potential of school settings for youth empowerment.

    Other research in the area

    A multisite randomized trial in the USA with 3,400 participants was underway at the time this review was published. This may add to the evidence base on YEPs. The authors also believe that a qualitative systematic review, exploring processes, mechanisms and perceptions underlying youth empowerment, would be a useful effort. Future studies should explore differences in the implementation of YEPs across cultures. High quality evaluations of the impacts of YEPs outside of the USA are especially lacking. Finally, YEPs run in school settings should be further examined. The features of school settings might enable greater program impacts.

The effects of teachers' classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour
  • Authors Regina Oliver, Daniel Reschly, Joseph Wehby
  • Published date 2011-06-24
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title The effects of teachers' classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2011.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Effective classroom management seems to improve student behaviour in the classroom but further research is needed

    Disruptive behaviour by students affects academic performance as students in disrupted classrooms have less engaged academic time. Effective classroom management - preventive procedures which give students specific, appropriate behaviours to engage in - improves student behaviour.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of teacher classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management practice is most effective. The review summarises findings from 12 studies conducted in public school general education classrooms in the United States and Netherlands. Participants included students from Kindergarten through 12th grade.

    What did the review study?

    Disruptive behaviour by students in the classroom is commonly associated with poor academic performance. Teaching time is often wasted trying to control disruptive behaviours.

    Effective classroom management is a preventive approach which establishes a positive classroom environment in which the teacher focuses on students who behave appropriately. This review studies the effect of these management practices on disruptive behaviours, and which of the components of the management practices is most effective.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on public school general education classrooms with students in Kindergarten through 12th grade as participants. Effectiveness studies had to use a valid experimental or quasi-experimental design with control groups.

    The studies were conducted in the United States and The Netherlands.

    A total of 12 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies did not include a breakdown of results by individual grade, which prevented an analysis by grade. Seven of the 12 studies were from the same research group and assessed the efficacy of the researcher’s own programme.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall, teachers’ classroom management practices have a significant positive effect in decreasing aggressive or problematic behaviour in the classroom. Students in the treatment classrooms in all 12 studies reviewed showed less disruptive or problematic behaviours when compared to the students in control classrooms without the intervention.

    It is not possible to make any conclusions regarding what component of the management practices is most effective due to small sample size and lack of information reported in the studies reviewed.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Individual classroom management practices, classroom organisation and behaviour management appears to be an effective classroom practice. However, due to the small sample size of the studies, a definite conclusion about effectiveness is premature. And the lack of rigorous evaluations of classroom management practices means it is not possible to draw any conclusions about which practices are most effective in reducing disruptive behaviours in the classroom. More independent research is needed on the effectiveness of classroom management practices in order to determine the best management practices.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until June 2011. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in June 2011.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' in the right column to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Page 4 of 7

Contact us