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Search Result: 64 Records found
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Interventions to improve the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees
  • Authors Eleanor Ott, Paul Montgomery
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Interventions to improve the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    There is no rigorous evidence on how to improve outcomes for resettled refugees

    There is insufficient evidence to determine whether programmes to improve the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees are effective or not. This does not mean that these programmes do not have important effects, only that the available evidence does not indicate what these effects may be.

    What is the review about?

    Over 59.5 million people have been forced from their homes globally of which 19.5 million are classified as refugees. Refugee resettlement programmes are offered to those who have particular needs or who must be moved to countries other than those in which they initially seek protection: 28 countries currently offer UNHCR-registered programmes, including the USA, Canada, and Australia. The USA alone invests $1 billion in resettlement programmes each year.

    One aim of resettlement programmes is to facilitate the economic integration of refugees. Support programmes include training, education, and mental health services. But resettled refugees often experience high levels of unemployment and poverty.

    This review assesses the effects of programmes to improve the self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees. Outcomes are employment, cash assistance, income levels, ability to keep a job, and quality of life.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of programmes on the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees. The review identified 23 relevant studies but none of these could be included in the analysis due weaknesses in study design.

    What studies were included in the review?

    Eligible studies examine outcomes for refugees who have been part of a government resettlement programme and who were between the ages of 18 and 64 years at the time of the programme.

    No studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. Twenty-three studies were identified which were not included in the review because their design meant that the effects measured could not be clearly attributed to the programmes.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    What helps refugees and are resettlement programs effective?

    The lack of available evidence means we do not know for sure how to help resettled refugees improve their economic integration or well-being. This does not mean that programmes for resettled refugees do not have effects, either positive or negative. The available evidence is insufficient to determine what the effects of the programmes are. Resettlement programmes also meet their goal in moving refugees and may have many other positive effects not explored here, such as on the safety of refugees.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The lack of knowledge and rigorous research on the impacts of programming for resettled refugees is surprising given the political importance of such programmes, the levels of investment involved, and the number of people affected.

    Such weaknesses have been officially recognised by, for example, the United States Government Accountability Office, which admits that little is still known “about which approaches are most effective in improving the economic status of refugees.”

    Policy makers are faced with the challenge of having to make decisions without a robust research base to inform them.

    There is a knowledge gap about the effects of programmes to support resettled refugees which should be filled by rigorous research. Studies should be informed by clear questions and objectives. Robust methodologies should be used, including appropriate comparison groups and the planned collection of data on key outcomes.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for interventions from studies from 1980 until September 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Cognitive-behavioural therapies for young people in outpatient treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Authors Trine Filges, Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen, Majken Mosegaard Svendsen, Krystyna Kowalski, Lars Benjaminsen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural therapies for young people in outpatient treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.3
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Cognitive-behavioural therapies to treat non-opioid drug use in young people is no better or worse than other treatments

    Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is no better – or worse – in reducing youth’s drug use than other interventions when used in outpatient settings.

    What did the review study?

    Youth’s use of non-opioid drugs such as cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy or cocaine is a severe problem worldwide. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is widely used as a substance abuse treatment with young people. CBT aims to reduce the drug use of adolescents by improving their skills to problem solve, cope with stress and by enhancing their self confidence to resist opportunities to use drugs.

    This review looks at whether CBT is better at reducing the use of non-opioid drugs among young people aged 13-21 than other treatments provided to adolescents in outpatient settings.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) when used in outpatient settings to reduce drug use (of e.g. cannabis, amphetamines,

    ecstasy, or cocaine) among young people aged 13-21. The review summarizes findings from seven studies, all of which were

    randomised controlled trials.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare the effects of CBT on youth’s abstinence, drug use and other outcomes with a broad range of other, mostly therapy-based, treatments. CBT interventions are included which are delivered by professionals to clients individually or in groups in outpatient settings. They may have additional components, such as motivational interviewing, but CBT was the primary intervention.

    Seven unique studies are included, reported in 17 papers. All seven studies are randomised controlled trials, six of which were conducted in the US, and one in the Netherlands. Together, the studies involve 953 study participants.

    Is CBT more or less effective than other treatments used in outpatient settings to reduce the use of non-opioid drugs among adolescents aged 13-21?

    CBT is no better than other treatments in ensuring total abstinence from non-opioid drugs or in reducing their use among adolescents who are in substance abuse treatment in an outpatient setting. This overall result is the same no matter if CBT is used with an additional component of motivational interviewing or not. There are also no better effects from CBT on other outcomes such as youth’s social functioning, school problems, criminal activity and treatment retention.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    CBT is not any better at reducing the use of non-opioid drugs among adolescents than other treatments when used in outpatient settings.

    The review is based on only a small number of studies, several of which show weaknesses and flaws in their methodology. There is a need to fund additional trials of CBT interventions, based on rigorous study designs and with a potential to add to the global CBT evidence base. The majority of included CBT studies were conducted in the U.S. The findings of this review may therefore only have limited applicability in other social and cultural settings. Future trials of CBT interventions should be conducted in a broader range of countries.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies until September 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Authors Sean Grant, Amanda Parsons, Jennifer Burton, Paul Montgomery, Kristen Underhill, Evan Mayo-Wilson
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.3
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Home visits appear not to be effective, but better evidence may show some benefits for some groups from some interventions

    Home visits by health and social care professionals aim to prevent cognitive and functional impairment in older adults, thus reducing institutionalisation and prolonging life. Overall, home visits do not achieve these aims. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine how and for whom home visits may be effective.

    What did the review study?

    Home visits by health and social care professionals are a preventive intervention targeted primarily towards older adults. Their main aim is to maintain the health and autonomy of community-dwelling older adults. This type of preventive intervention involves strategies to reduce a variety of risk factors older adults face for morbidity and mortality relating to physical, functional, psychological, environmental and social issues.

    This review examines the effectiveness of home visits in reducing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults. Factors that may moderate effects are identified.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effectiveness of home visits in preventing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults, as well as identifying factors that may moderate effects. The review summarises findings from 64 studies.

    Fourteen of the studies were undertaken in Great Britain, and the USA each, 11 in Canada, 5 in the Netherlands, 3 in Japan, 4 in Australia and New Zealand each, 2 each in Denmark, Taiwan, and Sweden, and 1 each in Switzerland, Finland and Italy.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies are randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of visits by health or social care professionals (not directly related to recent hospital discharge) for persons aged 65 years and above who are living at home. Less than 50% of the study population had to be without dementia.

    A total of 64 studies with 28,642 participants were included. All studies are from developed countries, with the largest number from the USA and the UK, with 14 studies each.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall home visits are not effective in maintaining the health and autonomy of community-dwelling older adults. Preventive home visits did not reduce absolute mortality, and did not have a significant overall effect on the number of people who were institutionalised.

    There is high quality evidence of no effect on falls from interventions targeting fall prevention. There is low quality evidence of small statistically significant positive effects for functioning and quality of life.

    It is possible that some programmes have modest effects on institutionalisation and hospitalisation. However, heterogeneity in target population and intervention design, as well as poor reporting of in studies of design, implementation and the control condition make this difficult to determine.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Home visits for community-dwelling older adults do not significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. Estimates of treatment effects were statistically precise. So further small studies of multi-component interventions compared with usual care would be unlikely to change the conclusion.

    However, there is a possibility that there may be beneficial effects of some interventions for some populations. Poor reporting of how interventions and comparisons were implemented means these cannot be identified in this review. If researchers continue evaluations on these types of interventions, a clear theory of change describing the programme theory of change and implementation is needed, and all measured outcomes must be reported.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until December 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Authors Marc Winokur, Amy Holtan, Keri Batchelder
  • Published date 2014-03-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.2
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish, French
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    The health and well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children in foster care

    The behavioural and mental health, and the well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children placed in foster care. Children in kinship care experience fewer placement disruptions and incidents of institutional abuse. The likelihood that guardianship is awarded to relatives is higher for children in kinship care compared to foster care.

    There are no differences between kinship and foster care for the rates of reunification with birth parents, the length of stay in placement, children’s educational attainment, the strength of family relations or the degree to which developmental and physician services are utilised. However, children in foster care are more likely to utilise mental health services and to be adopted, which removes any involvement of their birth parents in their upbringing.

    What did the review study?

    Kinship care - the placement of children with a family related to the child - is increasingly utilised in many Western countries as an alternative to placing children who have been maltreated in residential settings or with unrelated foster families.

    This review examines the effect of kinship care compared to foster care on the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment. Outcomes include children’s behavioural health, mental health, placement stability and permanency, educational attainment, family relations, service utilisation, and re-abuse.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines whether kinship care is more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and wellbeing of children removed from their home for maltreatment. The review summarizes findings from 102 studies involving 666,615 children. 71 of these studies were included in meta-analyses.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare data on the safety, permanency and well-being of children placed in kinship care with data for children placed in foster care.

    The review includes 102 studies, all of which were controlled experimental or quasi-experimental studies: 89 of were conducted in the USA, and the remainder in Spain, the Netherlands, Norway, Ireland, UK, Israel, Sweden and Australia.

    Is kinship care more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment?

    Children in kinship care have better behavioural and mental health than children in foster care, i.e. fewer internalising and externalising behaviours, better adaptive behaviours, fewer psychiatric disorders and better emotional health. They also experience greater stability and permanency in their placement and suffer from less institutional abuse than children in foster care. Also, the chance of relatives being awarded guardianship is greater for children in kinship care than for those in foster care.

    Children in foster care are more likely to be adopted than children in kinship care, and they utilise mental health services to a greater degree than children in kinship care.

    No differences between children in kinship and in foster care are found for the utilisation of other public services than mental health services (i.e. developmental services, or physician services), or for educational attainment, the rate of reunification with birth parents, or for the strength of their relations and attachment to their family.

    Some of the findings are context specific, notably the lesser support which may be given to kinship carers compared to foster carers, and whether permanency of the kinship or foster arrangement, adoption or reunification is the preferred end goal.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Kinship care is a viable option for the children that need to be removed from the home for maltreatment. However, policy issues remain to balance the cost-effectiveness of kinship care with a possible need for increased levels of caseworker involvement and service delivery.

    A considerable number of the included studies showed weaknesses in their methodologies and designs. There is a need to conduct more high quality quantitative studies of the effects of kinship care based on robust longitudinal designs and psychometrically sound instruments.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    This review includes studies published between March 2007 and March 2011.

  • Norwegian

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Norwegian.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • French

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in French.

Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused
  • Authors Ben Parker, William Turner
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.13
Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults
  • Authors Gracia LT Fellmeth, Joanna Nurse, Catherine Heffernan, Shakiba Habibula, Dinesh Sethi
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.14
Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Authors Maia Lindstrøm, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Krystyna Kowalski, Trine Filges, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.7
Unemployment benefit exhaustion: incentive effects on job-finding rates
  • Authors Trine Filges, Lars Pico Geerdsen, Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen, Krystyna Kowalski
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Unemployment benefit exhaustion: incentive effects on job-finding rates
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Exhaustion of unemployment benefits leads to an increase in job-finding rates among the unemployed

    There is evidence that the exhaustion of unemployment benefits encourages unemployed individuals to find work.

    What did the review study?

    Since the 1970s unemployment rates in Europe and the USA have diverged, with unemployment persistently higher in the USA. The generosity of the benefits system is one possible factor behind this difference.

    Shortening the length of unemployment benefit eligibility period is a policy instrument intended to decrease unemployment. The policy is intended to encourage productive job searches and reduce the overall unemployment level.

    This review assesses the impact of exhaustion of employment benefits on the job-finding rate for unemployed individuals.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the impact of exhaustion of employment benefits on the job-finding rate for unemployed individuals. The review summarises findings from 47 studies. The majority of studies were conducted in Europe, with just two of the studies taking place in the USA and one in Canada. Participants were unemployed individuals receiving any form of time-limited benefit during their period of being unemployed.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies tested unemployed individuals’ exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. The studies tested the exit rate from the re-employment job as a secondary outcome. Non-randomized studies as well as study designs that used a well-defined control group, i.e. unemployed persons whose benefit expiration was not immediate, were also included.

    Whilst 47 studies were identified, after allowing for study quality and data issues, only 12 studies are included in the meta-analysis. The countries represented in the meta-analysis include Canada, USA, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Germany, Czech Republic, Austria, and Poland.The participants were unemployed individuals who received some sort of time-limited benefit during their period of unemployment.

    What are the main results in this review?

    The exhaustion of unemployment benefits encourages unemployed individuals to find work. The exhaustion of benefits results in an increase of about 80% in the exit rate from unemployment to employment. The effect starts to occur approximately two months before benefits expire, increasing as the expiration date approaches. There was no significant effect observed prior to the two months before benefits expire.

    There was insufficient evidence to address the secondary outcome of whether the prospect of benefit exhaustion has an impact on the exit rate from the re-employment job, i.e. workers soon leave the new job and return to benefits. Thus, the evidence that exhaustion of unemployment benefits reduces overall unemployment level is inconclusive.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Exhaustion of unemployment benefits leads to an increase in job-finding rates among the unemployed but only shortly prior to exhaustion and at the time of exhaustion.

    The hypothesis that shortening the benefit eligibility period may increase productive job searches has been confirmed. However, only a small number of studies provide data for re-employment exit rates so additional research is needed to assess the overall effect on unemployment.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2011. This Campbell systematic review was published in March 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes
  • Authors Hilary Thomson, Siân Thomas, Eva Sellström, Mark Petticrew
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.2
Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape
  • Authors Cheryl Regehr, Ramona Alaggia, Catriona Shatford, Annabel Pitts, Michael Saini
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.3
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