Better evidence for a better world
Better evidence for a better world

Better evidence for a better world (167)

Additional Info

  • Authors Heather Hensman Kettrey, Robert A. Marx, Emily E. Tanner-Smith
  • Published date 2019-01-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • PLS Title Bystander programs increase bystander intervention but no effect on perpetrating sexual assault
  • PLS Description Sexual assault is a significant problem among adolescents and college students across the world. One promising strategy for preventing these assaults is the implementation of bystander sexual assault prevention programs, which encourage young people to intervene when witnessing incidents or warning signs of sexual assault. This review examines the effects bystander programs have on knowledge and attitudes concerning sexual assault and bystander behavior, bystander intervention when witnessing sexual assault or its warning signs, and participants’ rates of perpetration of sexual assault.
  • Title Effects of bystander programs on the prevention of sexual assault among adolescents and college students
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2019.1

Additional Info

  • Authors David B. Wilson, Iain Brennan, Ajima Olaghere
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Police-led diversion of low-risk youth reduces their future contact with the justice system
  • PLS Description Youth misconduct and misbehavior is a normal part of adolescence and that misbehavior sometimes crosses the line from disruptive or problematic to delinquent. Nationally representative surveys of youth in the USA have indicated that minor delinquent behavior is normative, particularly for boys. The normative nature of minor delinquent behavior raises the question of how police should respond to minor delinquent behavior in a way that is corrective, but also avoids involving the youth in the criminal justice system beyond what will be effective in reducing future misbehavior. Police diversion schemes are a collection of strategies police can apply as an alternative to court processing of youth. Diversion as an option is popular among law enforcement officers, as it provides an option between ignoring youth engaged in minor wrongdoing and formally charging such youth with a crime. Police-led diversion has the potential to to reduce reoffending by limiting the exposure of low-risk youth to potentially harmful effects of engagement with the criminal justice system. This review examined whether police-led diversion and traditional processing of youth have different effects on rates of official delinquency.
  • Title Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.5

Additional Info

  • Authors Sarah Krowka, Alexandria Hadd, Robert Marx
  • Published date 2017-08-28
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title No Excuses charter schools associated with greater gains in math and literacy than traditional public schools
  • PLS Description The No Excuses charter school model focuses heavily on high academic expectations, rigid and consistent discipline, extended instructional time, intensive teacher training, and increased parental involvement. This review examines the effect of No Excuses charter schools on math and literacy achievement. On average, No Excuses charter schools are associated with greater student gains on standardized measures of math and literacy achievement when compared to traditional public schools—with higher gains for math.
  • Title ‘No Excuses’ charter schools for increasing math and literacy achievement in primary and secondary education
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2017.9

Additional Info

  • Authors Carolyn Graham, Michael West, Jessica Bourdon, Katherine J. Inge
  • Published date 2016-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Interventions for adults with traumatic brain injury may improve employment status
  • PLS Description Programs for adults who have suffered traumatic brain injury may improve employment status. All programs lead to employment, although no single program was more effective than the other programs.
  • Title Employment interventions for return-to-work in working-age adults following traumatic brain injury
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2016.6

Additional Info

  • Authors Alex Baron, Maria Evangelou, Lars-Erik Malmberg, G.J. Melendez-Torres
  • Published date 2017-10-16
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title The Tools of the Mind curriculum improves self-regulation and academic skills in early childhood
  • PLS Description Tools of the Mind (Tools) is an early childhood education curriculum, which involves structured make-believe play scenarios and a series of other curricular activities. Tools aims to promote and improve children’s self-regulation and academic skills by having a dual focus on self-regulation and other social-emotional skills in educational contexts. This review examines the evidence on the effectiveness of tools in promoting children’s self-regulation and academic skills, in order to inform its implementation in schools.
  • Title The 'Tools of the Mind' curriculum for improving self-regulation in early childhood
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2017.10

Additional Info

  • Authors Esther Coren, Rosa Hossain, Jordi Pardo Pardo, Brittany Bakker
  • Published date 2016-07-01
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Lack of evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reintegrate street-connected children
  • PLS Description This Campbell review assesses the effectiveness of interventions for improving outcomes among street-connected children and young people, and for reducing some important health-related risks; and to improve access to and integration into society, education, and employment opportunities.
  • Title Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2016.5

Additional Info

  • Authors Gary Ritter
  • Published date 2016-06-20
  • Type of document Policy brief
  • Title Policy brief 2: Effects of school-based interventions to improve student behavior

Additional Info

  • Authors Jane Barlow
  • Published date 2016-06-20
  • Type of document Policy brief
  • Title Policy brief 1: Effects of parenting programmes
  • English

    Parenting programmes are provided to parents to enhance their knowledge, skills and understanding, and so improve both child and parent behavioural and psychological outcomes.

    These programmes are typically offered over eight to 12 weeks, for about one to two hours each week, although the range varies from as few as two sessions to as many as 20.

    Professor Barlow summarises evidence from six Campbell systematic reviews.

  • Spanish

    Efectos de programas de capacitación para padres: Una revisión de seis revisiones sistemáticas Campbell

Additional Info

  • Authors Hugh Waddington
  • Published date 2016-06-08
  • Type of document Policy brief
  • Title Policy brief 3: Programs promoting sustainable agriculture for smallholders
  • English

    This Campbell policy brief summarizes evidence from five systematic reviews in the Campbell Library which examine agricultural interventions including technology, skills and the regulatory environment. The impact of the following interventions is presented: land titling, training and technology, farmer field schools, payment for environmental services and decentralized forest management.

Additional Info

  • Authors Padraic Fleming, Sinead McGilloway, Marian Hernon, Mairead Furlong, Siobhain O’Doherty, Fiona Keogh, Tim Stainton
  • Published date 2019-01-25
  • Coordinating group(s) Disability
  • Type of document Review
  • PLS Title Individualised funding has positive effects on health and social care outcomes
  • PLS Description Individualised funding is an umbrella term for disability supports funded on an individual basis. It aims to facilitate self-direction, empowerment, independence and self-determination. This review examines the effects and experiences of individualised funding.
  • Title Individualised funding has positive effects on health and social care outcomes
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Individualised funding provides personal budgets for people with disabilities, to increase independence and quality of life. The approach has consistently positive effects on overall satisfaction, with some evidence also of improvements in quality of life and sense of security. There may also be fewer adverse effects. Despite implementation challenges, recipients generally prefer this intervention to traditional supports.

    What is this review about?

    Individualised funding is an umbrella term for disability supports funded on an individual basis. It aims to facilitate self-direction, empowerment, independence and self-determination. This review examines the effects and experiences of individualised funding.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of individualised funding on a range of health and social care outcomes. It also presents evidence on the experiences of people with a disability, their paid and unpaid supports and implementation successes and challenges from the perspective of both funding and support organisations.

    What are the main findings of this review?

    This study is a review of 73 studies of individualised funding for people with disabilities. These include four quantitative studies, 66 qualitative and three based on a mixed-methods design. The data refer to a 24-year period from 1992 to 2016, with data for 14,000 people. Studies were carried out in Europe, the US, Canada and Australia.

    What studies are included?

    Overall, the evidence suggests positive effects of individualised funding with respect to quality of life, client satisfaction and safety. There may also be fewer adverse effects. There is less evidence of impact for physical functioning, unmet need and cost effectiveness. The review finds no differences between approaches for the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT), self-perceived health and community participation.

    Recipients particularly value: flexibility, improved self-image and self-belief; more value for money; community integration; freedom to choose ‘who supports you; ‘social opportunities’; and needs-led support. Many people chose individualised funding due to previous negative experiences of traditional, segregated, group-orientated supports.

    Successful implementation is supported by strong, trusting and collaborative relationships in their support network with both paid and unpaid individuals. This facilitates processes such as information sourcing, staff recruitment, network building and support with administrative and management tasks. These relationships are strengthened by financial recognition for family and friends, appropriate rates of pay, a shift in power from agencies to the individual or avoidance of paternalistic behaviour.

    Challenges include long delays in accessing and receiving funds, which are compounded by overly complex and bureaucratic processes. There can be a general lack of clarity (e.g. allowable budget use) and inconsistent approaches to delivery as well as unmet information needs. Hidden costs or administrative charges can be a source of considerable concern and stress.

    Staff mention involvement of local support organisations, availability of a support network for the person with a disability and timely relevant training as factors supporting implementation. Staff also highlight logistical challenges in support needs in an individualised way including, for example, responding to individual expectations, and socio-demographic differences.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    This review provides an up-to-date and in-depth synthesis of the available evidence over 25 years. It shows that there are benefits of the individualised funding model. This finding suggests that practitioners and funders should consider moving away from scepticism, towards opportunity and enthusiasm. Policy makers need to be aware of the set-up and transitionary costs involved. Investment in education and training will facilitate deeper understanding of individualised funding and the mechanisms for successful implementation.

    Future studies should incorporate longer follow-ups at multiple points over a longer period. The authors of the review encourage mixed-methods approaches in further systematic reviews in the field of health and social care, to provide a more holistic assessment of the effectiveness and impact of complex ‘real-world’ interventions.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies up to the end of 2016. This Campbell systematic review was published in January 2019.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2019.3
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