Better evidence for a better world
Better evidence for a better world

Better evidence for a better world (167)

Additional Info

  • Published date 2019-08-05
  • Title Other evidence and gap maps (EGMs)

Additional Info

  • Authors Ruth Pitt
  • Published date 2018-08-22
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Policy brief
  • Title Policy brief 5: Effectiveness of focused policing strategies
  • English

    This Campbell policy brief summarises findings from systematic reviews on focused policing strategies, the consequences of geographically-focused policing for neighbouring areas, and community perceptions of police legitimacy.

Additional Info

  • Authors Heather Menzies Munthe-Kaas, Rigmor C Berg, Nora Blaasvær
  • Published date 2018-02-28
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Interventions to reduce homelessness and improve housing stability are effective
  • PLS Description There are large numbers of homeless people around the world. Efforts to combat homelessness have been made on national levels as well as at local government levels. This review assesses the effectiveness of interventions combining housing programmes with or without case management as a means to reduce homelessness and increase residential stability for individuals who are homeless, or at risk of becoming homeless.
  • Title Effectiveness of interventions to reduce homelessness
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.3

Additional Info

  • Authors Giel Ton, Sam Desiere, Wytse Vellema, Sophia Weituschat, Marijke D'Haese
  • Published date 2017-12-12
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Contract farming improves incomes for better-off farmers
  • PLS Description Contract farming is a sales arrangement agreed before production begins, which provides the farmer with resources or services. The service package provided by the firm varies per location, and can include transport, certification, input provisioning and credit. This systematic review summarises evidence on income effects for smallholders to assess average effects and explore combinations of factors that increase these effects.
  • Title The effectiveness of contract farming for raising income of smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2017.13

Additional Info

  • Authors Hugh Waddington, Ada Sonnenfeld, Juliette Finetti, Marie Gaarder, Denny John, Jennifer Stevenson
  • Published date 2019-08-02
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Plain language summary
  • Title Citizen engagement improves access to public services in low- and middle-income countries, but evidence on development outcomes is limited
  • Library Image Library Image
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Citizen engagement improves access to public services in low- and middle-income countries, but evidence on development outcomes is limited

    Interventions promoting citizen engagement in public service management involve participation, inclusion, transparency and accountability (PITA) mechanisms. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), these interventions are effective in improving active citizenship and service delivery, and may improve the responsiveness of service provider staff for services provided directly by public servants (for example, in health).

    In contrast, interventions providing information to stimulate pressure on politicians are not usually effective in improving provider response or service delivery. There is insufficient evidence to conclude whether these interventions are effective in improving wellbeing or the relationship between citizens and the state.

    What is this review about?

    Failures in governance lead to the exclusion of large portions of society from public services and to waste, fraud and corruption. This review assesses evidence for interventions promoting better governance of public services: participation (participatory planning), inclusion (involvement of marginalised groups), transparency (information about citizen rights or performance of public officials), and accountability (citizen feedback) mechanisms, known collectively as PITA mechanisms.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of interventions to promote citizen engagement in public service management. The review synthesises evidence from 35 impact evaluations and 36 related studies of interventions promoting participation, inclusion, transparency and accountability (PITA) mechanisms.

    What studies are included?

    The review includes impact evaluations relating to 35 PITA programmes from 20 LMICs. In addition, 36 qualitative and programmatic documents were included to strengthen understanding of implementation context and programme mechanisms.

    What are the main findings of this review?

    Citizen engagement interventions (i) are usually effective in improving intermediate user engagement outcomes, for example, meeting attendance and contributions to community funds; (ii) improve access to and quality of services but not service use outcomes; (iii) can lead to improvements in some wellbeing outcomes such as health and productive outcomes; (iv) may improve tax collection; but (v) do not usually lead to changes in provider action outcomes such as public spending, staff motivation and corruption. There may be an exception where there is direct interaction between citizens and service providers in the regular delivery of services. Interventions providing performance information do not generally improve access or lead to improvements in service quality.

    Only interventions focused on services delivered by front-line staff (e.g., in health) achieve positive outcomes. Those delivered without public interaction (e.g., roads) do not. However, engagement with civil society organisations and interest groups may lead to better outcomes for services accessed independently of providers. Inclusive citizen engagement programmes have at least as big an effect on user engagement and access to services as less inclusive approaches.

    Many interventions experienced challenges stemming from a lack of positive engagement with supply-side actors, whose power the interventions often sought to diminish. Interventions implemented with the strong support of the targeted service providers were better able to realise positive impacts.

    Approaches to citizen-service provider engagement appear to work more effectively when implemented through phased, facilitated collaborative processes rather than one-off accountability meetings that are seen as confrontational.

    Only four studies present any data on intervention costs. This limited the potential for any analysis of comparisons across programmes and settings.

    In interpreting the findings, it must be noted that each individual outcome is reported in only a few studies and that included studies have important methodological weaknesses with risks of bias arising from weak design, analysis and reporting.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    For policy and programme managers: A collaborative rather than confrontational approach with the service providers whose services are under scrutiny is more likely to be effective. Engaging communities may require using civil society organisations to facilitate the community’s participation. Programme design should ensure positive engagement with supply-side actors within the intervention setting.

    For researchers: More high-quality studies are needed, comparing different approaches to improving service delivery, paying attention to complete description of the different approaches being compared. Since implementation is a crucial factor, mixed methods studies should be the norm, and will help focus on equity considerations which have been neglected. Finally, there should be standardisation of indicators in PITA studies.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies up to March 2018. This Campbell systematic review was published in June 2019.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/cl2.1025

Additional Info

  • Authors Maren Duvendack, Philip Mader
  • Published date 2019-01-07
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development, Methods
  • Type of document Review
  • PLS Title Financial inclusion interventions have very small and inconsistent impacts
  • PLS Description Financial inclusion programmes seek to increase access to financial services such as credit, savings, insurance and money transfers and so allow poor and low-income households in low- and middle-income countries to enhance their welfare, grasp opportunities, mitigate shocks, and ultimately escape poverty. This systematic review of reviews assesses the evidence on economic, social, behavioural and gender-related outcomes from financial inclusion.
  • Title Financial inclusion interventions have very small and inconsistent impacts
  • Library Image Library Image
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    A wide range of financial inclusion programmes seek to increase poor people’s access to financial services to enhance the welfare of poor and low-income households in low- and middle-income countries. The impacts of financial inclusion interventions are small and variable. Although some services have some positive effects for some people, overall financial inclusion may be no better than comparable alternatives, such as graduation or livelihoods interventions.

    What is this review about?

    Financial inclusion programmes seek to increase access to financial services such as credit, savings, insurance and money transfers and so allow poor and low-income households in low- and middle-income countries to enhance their welfare, grasp opportunities, mitigate shocks, and ultimately escape poverty.  This systematic review of reviews assesses the evidence on economic, social, behavioural and gender-related outcomes from financial inclusion.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This systematic review of reviews systematically collects and appraises all of the existing meta-studies – that is systematic reviews and meta-analyses – of the impact of financial inclusion. The authors first analyse the strength of the methods used in those meta-studies, then synthesise the findings from those that are of a sufficient quality, and finally, report the implications for policy, programming, practice and further research arising from the evidence. Eleven studies are included in the analysis.

    What are the main findings of this review?

    What studies are included?

    This review includes studies that synthesise the findings of other studies (meta-studies) regarding the impacts of a range of financial inclusion interventions on economic, social, gender and behavioural outcomes. A total of 32 such meta-studies were identified, of which 11 were of sufficient methodological quality to be included in the final analysis. The review examined meta-studies from 2010 onwards that spanned the globe in terms of geographical coverage.

    Impacts are more likely to be positive than negative, but the effects vary, are often mixed, and appear not to be transformative in scope or scale, as they largely occur in the early stages of the causal chain of effects. Overall, the effects of financial services on core economic poverty indicators such as incomes, assets or spending, and on health status and other social outcomes, are small and inconsistent. Moreover, there is no evidence for meaningful behaviour-change outcomes leading to further positive effects.

    The effects of financial services on women’s empowerment appear to be generally positive, but they depend upon programme features which are often only peripheral or unrelated to the financial service itself (such as education about rights), cultural and geographical context, and what aspects of empowerment are considered.

    Accessing savings opportunities appears to have small but much more consistently positive effects for poor people, and bears fewer downside risks for clients than credit. A large number of the meta-studies included in the final analysis voiced concerns about the low quality of the primary evidence base that formed the basis of their syntheses. This raises concerns about the reliability of the overall findings of meta-studies.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    This systematic review of reviews draws on the largest-ever evidence base on financial inclusion impacts.  The weak effects found warn against unrealistic hype for financial inclusion, as previously happened for microcredit. There are substantial evidence gaps, notably studies of sufficient duration to measure higher-level impacts which take time to materialize, and for specific outcomes such as debt levels or indebtedness patterns and the link to macroeconomic development.

    This study is the first review of reviews published by the Campbell Collaboration. Some important limitations were encountered working at this level of systematisation.  It is recommended that authors of primary studies and meta-studies engage more critically with study quality and ensure better, more detailed reporting of their concepts, data and methods. More methods guidance and clearer reporting standards for the social science and international development context would be helpful.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies in November 2017, updating elements of the searches in January 2018. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in January 2019.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2019.2

Additional Info

Additional Info

  • Authors Geir Smedslund, Sabine Wollscheid, Lin Fang, Wendy Nilsen, Asbjørn Steiro, Lillebeth Larun
  • Published date 2017-04-07
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Computerized brief interventions seem to reduce risky alcohol use among young people; no evidence of effect on cannabis consumption
  • PLS Description This review assesses research on the effectiveness of early, computerized brief interventions on alcohol and cannabis use by young people who are high or risky consumers of either one or both of these substances.
  • Title Effect of early, brief computerized interventions on risky alcohol and cannabis use among young people
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2017.6

Additional Info

  • Authors Brandy R Maynard, Michael Solis, Veronica Miller, Kristen E. Brendel
  • Published date 2017-03-10
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Mindfulness-Based Interventions in schools have positive effects on cognitive and socioemotional processes but do not improve behavior and academic achievement
  • PLS Description This review examines the effects of school-based MBIs on cognitive, behavioral, socioemotional and academic achievement outcomes with youth in a primary or secondary school setting.
  • Title Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior and socio-emotional functioning of primary and secondary students
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/CSR.2017.5

Additional Info

  • Authors Anke Rohwer, Nkengafac Villyen Motaze, Eva Rehfuess, Taryn Young
  • Published date 2017-03-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Blended learning is most effective in increasing evidence-based health care competencies of health workers
  • PLS Description This review assesses the effectiveness of e-learning of EBHC for increasing EBHC competencies in healthcare professionals. The primary outcomes are EBHC knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviour.
  • Title E-learning of evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) to increase EBHC competencies in healthcare professionals
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2017.4
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