Plain Language Summaries

Plain Language Summaries of Campbell’s systematic reviews are now available. These summaries are published as part of our commitment to helping people use and interpret research evidence.
Crime and Justice
Education
International Development
Social Welfare

This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of closed circuit television (CCTV) on property crime and violent crime. The review reports on whether using CCTV results in crime displacement, and also assesses whether using CCTV leads to the spread of crime prevention benefits. The authors found 44 evaluations. The studies were from the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Norway and Sweden. Most of the studies (34) were from the United Kingdom.

This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of psychosocial interventions for school refusal. The review summarizes the findings from eight studies.

This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programmes on deforestation and poverty, and whether environmental and poverty reduction goals conflict with one another. The review summarizes evidence from 11 studies covering six PES programmes in four countries.

This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of advocacy interventions on intimate partner violence and women's wellbeing. The review summarizes findings from 13 studies.

Plain Language Summaries of Campbell’s systematic reviews are now available. These summaries are published as part of our commitment to helping people use and interpret research evidence.

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  • Crime and Justice


    Hot spots policing is effective in reducing crime

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of focusing police crime prevention efforts on crime hot spots, and whether focused police actions at specific locations result in crime displacement (i.e. crime moving around the corner) or diffusion (i.e. crime reduction in surrounding areas) of crime control benefits. The review includes 19 studies covering 25 cases. Seventeen of the studies were conducted in the USA.

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  • Education


    Preschool language skills are associated with better reading comprehension at school

    Determining how to provide the best instruction to support children’s reading comprehension requires an understanding of how reading comprehension actually develops. To promote our understanding of this process, this review summarizes evidence from observations of the development of language and reading comprehension from the preschool years into school. The main outcome in this review is reading comprehension skills. Understanding the development of reading comprehension and its precursors can help us develop hypotheses about what effective instruction must comprise to facilitate well-functioning reading comprehension skills. These hypotheses can be tested in randomized controlled trials.

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  • International Development


    Contract farming improves incomes for better-off farmers

    Contract farming is a sales arrangement agreed before production begins, which provides the farmer with resources or services. The service package provided by the firm varies per location, and can include transport, certification, input provisioning and credit. This systematic review summarises evidence on income effects for smallholders to assess average effects and explore combinations of factors that increase these effects.

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  • Social Welfare


    Mindfulness training improves health and quality of life for adults

    Stress and stress-related mental health problems are major causes of illness and disability. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction is a group-based health promotion intervention to improve health and the way people deal with stress and life’s challenges. The core ingredient is mindfulness training through physical and mental exercises practiced daily for eight weeks. The mindful non-judgmental attitude of being present with what arises is practiced in the formal exercises and in everyday situations. This review assesses the effect of MBSR programs on outcome measures of mental and physical health, quality of life and social functioning in adults.

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    See the Campbell Review

    See social welfare summaries

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