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Better evidence for a better world
Better evidence for a better world

Better evidence for a better world (177)

Additional Info

  • Authors Marc Winokur, Amy Holtan, Keri Batchelder
  • Published date 2014-03-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.2
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish, French
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    The health and well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children in foster care

    The behavioural and mental health, and the well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children placed in foster care. Children in kinship care experience fewer placement disruptions and incidents of institutional abuse. The likelihood that guardianship is awarded to relatives is higher for children in kinship care compared to foster care.

    There are no differences between kinship and foster care for the rates of reunification with birth parents, the length of stay in placement, children’s educational attainment, the strength of family relations or the degree to which developmental and physician services are utilised. However, children in foster care are more likely to utilise mental health services and to be adopted, which removes any involvement of their birth parents in their upbringing.

    What did the review study?

    Kinship care - the placement of children with a family related to the child - is increasingly utilised in many Western countries as an alternative to placing children who have been maltreated in residential settings or with unrelated foster families.

    This review examines the effect of kinship care compared to foster care on the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment. Outcomes include children’s behavioural health, mental health, placement stability and permanency, educational attainment, family relations, service utilisation, and re-abuse.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines whether kinship care is more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and wellbeing of children removed from their home for maltreatment. The review summarizes findings from 102 studies involving 666,615 children. 71 of these studies were included in meta-analyses.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare data on the safety, permanency and well-being of children placed in kinship care with data for children placed in foster care.

    The review includes 102 studies, all of which were controlled experimental or quasi-experimental studies: 89 of were conducted in the USA, and the remainder in Spain, the Netherlands, Norway, Ireland, UK, Israel, Sweden and Australia.

    Is kinship care more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment?

    Children in kinship care have better behavioural and mental health than children in foster care, i.e. fewer internalising and externalising behaviours, better adaptive behaviours, fewer psychiatric disorders and better emotional health. They also experience greater stability and permanency in their placement and suffer from less institutional abuse than children in foster care. Also, the chance of relatives being awarded guardianship is greater for children in kinship care than for those in foster care.

    Children in foster care are more likely to be adopted than children in kinship care, and they utilise mental health services to a greater degree than children in kinship care.

    No differences between children in kinship and in foster care are found for the utilisation of other public services than mental health services (i.e. developmental services, or physician services), or for educational attainment, the rate of reunification with birth parents, or for the strength of their relations and attachment to their family.

    Some of the findings are context specific, notably the lesser support which may be given to kinship carers compared to foster carers, and whether permanency of the kinship or foster arrangement, adoption or reunification is the preferred end goal.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Kinship care is a viable option for the children that need to be removed from the home for maltreatment. However, policy issues remain to balance the cost-effectiveness of kinship care with a possible need for increased levels of caseworker involvement and service delivery.

    A considerable number of the included studies showed weaknesses in their methodologies and designs. There is a need to conduct more high quality quantitative studies of the effects of kinship care based on robust longitudinal designs and psychometrically sound instruments.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    This review includes studies published between March 2007 and March 2011.

  • Norwegian

    OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Barn som er plassert i slektsfosterhjem har bedre helse og velferd enn barn plassert i ordinære fosterhjem

    Slektsfosterhjem er en fosterhjemsplassering der barnet plasseres til oppfostring i egen slekt eller familie. Barn som er plassert i slektsfosterhjem, har bedre mental helse- og mindre atferdsproblemer enn barn plassert i ordinære fosterhjem. Barn i slektsfosterhjem opplever færre flyttinger og mindre institusjonelt mishandling (av ansatte i systemet). Sannsynligheten for at formynderskapet gis til slektninger er større for barn i slektsfosterhjem enn barn i ordinære fosterhjem.

    På en del utfall finner man ingen forskjell mellom barn i slektsfosterhjem og barn i ordinære fosterhjem. Dette gjelder for eksempel hvorvidt barna blir gjenforent med sine biologiske foreldre, lengden på oppholdet i plassering, barnas skoleprestasjoner, hvor sterke biologiske familierelasjonene er, eller i hvilken grad utviklings- eller legetjenester brukes. Barn i ordinære fosterhjem har imidlertid større sannsynlighet for å ta i bruk psykolog- eller psykiatritjenester og for å bli adoptert. Det siste utelukker som regel de biologiske foreldrenes involvering i barnas liv.

    Hva undersøkte oversikten?

    Plassering av barn i slektsfosterhjem brukes i økende grad i mange vestlige land som et alternativ til å plassere barn som har blitt mishandlet, på institusjon eller hos fosterfamilier uten slektstilknytning.

    Denne oversikten undersøker effekten av barns oppvekst i slektsfosterhjem sammenlignet med ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder å ivareta barnas trygghet, stabilitet i hjemmet og generell velferd for barn som har blitt tatt bort fra hjemmet sitt på grunn av mishandling. Utfallene omfatter barnas atferdsmessige helse, mentale helse, plasseringsstabilitet, skoleprestasjoner, familierelasjoner, tjenestebruk og ny mishandling.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell undersøker hvorvidt slektsfosterhjem er bedre enn ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder å ivareta trygghet og velferd, samt sikre plassering for barn som tas bort fra hjemmet på grunn av mishandling. Oversikten oppsummerer funn fra 102 studier med totalt 666 615 barn. 71 av disse studiene ble inkludert i metaanalyser.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert?

    Studier inkludert i denne oversikten målte effekt av tiltakene på trygghet, sannsynlighet for varig plassering og velferd hos barn. Oversikten inkluderer 102 studier – og alle var kontrollerte eksperimentelle eller kvasieksperimentelle studier: 89 av dem ble gjennomført i USA, og resten ble gjennomført i Spania, Nederland, Norge, Irland, Storbritannia, Israel, Sverige og Australia.

    Er slektsfosterhjem mer effektivt enn ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder å ivareta trygghet, velvære og plasseringsstabilitet for barn som har blitt tatt bort fra hjemmet på grunn av mishandling?

    Barn i slektsfosterhjem har bedre atferdsmessig og mental helse enn barn i ordinære fosterhjem, det vil si mindre internaliserende og eksternaliserende atferd, bedre adaptiv atferd, færre psykiske lidelser og bedre emosjonell helse. De opplever også mer stabilitet i plasseringen og er sjeldnere utsatt for institusjonell mishandling enn barn i ordinære fosterhjem. Sjansen for at slektninger blir gitt formynderskapet, er også større for barn i slektsfosterhjem enn for dem i ordinære fosterhjem.

    Barn i ordinære fosterhjem har større sannsynlighet for å bli adoptert enn barn i slektsfosterhjem, og de bruker psykolog- og psykiatritjenester i større grad enn barn i slektsfosterhjem.

    Det er ikke funnet noen forskjeller mellom barn i slektsfosterhjem og barn i ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder bruken av andre offentlige tjenester, som fastlege eller lignende, eller når det gjelder skoleprestasjoner, hvorvidt de blir gjenforent med sine biologiske foreldre eller styrken på familierelasjonene og familietilknytningen.

    Noen av funnene er kontekstspesifikke, for eksempel at omsorgsgivere i slektsfosterhjem gjerne får mindre støtte enn omsorgsgivere i ordinære fosterhjem. Det var også forskjeller mellom studiene om hvorvidt permanent plassering i slektsfosterhjemmet eller det ordinære fosterhjemmet, adopsjon eller gjenforening var det foretrukne målet.

    Hva innebærer funnene i denne oversikten?

    Slektsfosterhjem fremstår som et godt alternativ for barna som må tas bort fra hjemmet på grunn av mishandling. Det gjenstår imidlertid politiske utfordringer for å balansere kostnadseffektiviteten ved slektsfosterhjem med et potensielt behov for å involvere flere saksbehandlere og bruk av flere tjenester.

    Mange av de inkluderte studiene hadde svakheter med hensyn til design og risiko for systematiske feil. Det er behov for flere kvantitative studier av høy kvalitet og som følger opp barna over tid. Slike studier bør benytte seg av validerte instrumenter for å måle relevante utfall.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Denne oversikten inkluderer studier publisert mellom mars 2007 og mars 2011. Oversikten ble publisert 3. mars 2014.

  • Spanish

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  • French

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Additional Info

  • Authors Steven Lawry, Cyrus Samii, Ruth Hall, Aaron Leopold, Donna Hornby, Farai Mtero
  • Published date 2014-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title The impact of land property rights interventions on investment and agricultural productivity in developing countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.1
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Land property rights interventions improve agricultural productivity and investment in Latin America and Asia, but less in Africa

    Land property rights interventions increase investment, agricultural productivity and farmer incomes in Latin America and Asia but have weaker effects in Africa. But there can also be negative social outcomes such as displacing the poor and reducing women’s access to land.

    What is this review about?

    Farmers who have secure land rights can invest in long-term improvements to their farms without worrying that their land will be confiscated. Formalizing property rights may improve agricultural productivity, increase farmer income and improve access to credit.

    The most common approach to strengthening land rights in Latin America and Asia is to convert communal or non-demarcated rural land to freehold title, then register rights to the land in an official registry. In Africa, the more common approach is to demarcate and register existing customary rights. Underlying ownership remains with the state, and land sales are often restricted. This review examines the evidence on the impacts of such interventions on agricultural and livelihood outcomes in rural areas in low and middle-income countries.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell Systematic Review examines the effect of interventions to strengthen land property rights on outcomes such as investment, agricultural productivity and farmer incomes in rural areas in low and middle-income countries. The review summarises evidence from 20 quantitative studies (quasi-experimental studies with statistical adjustment for bias) and nine qualitative studies.

    What studies are included?

    The review includes 20 quantitative studies with quasi-experimental study designs with statistical adjustment for bias, and nine qualitative studies. The studies were conducted in Latin America, South Asia, East Asia and Africa, and each compared households or land parcels where the interventions did and did not occur. The time between intervention and assessment ranged from two years to 44 years.

    No studies of sufficient quality were found on another kind of land property right intervention: statutory recognition of customary land rights at a legal status equal to state and private ownership, and registration of these rights in an official registry).

    What are the main findings of this review?

    What are the effects of agricultural and livelihood outcomes of land property rights interventions?

    Land property rights improve productivity, consumption expenditure and income. However, caution is needed in interpreting this finding as there are few high-quality studies available.

    Where are land property rights interventions effective?

    Land property rights interventions have significant effects in Latin America and Asia. In Africa, the effects are positive, but much weaker. Landholders in Africa may have sufficient security from customary tenure arrangements and therefore have less need for formalization. They may also have less ability to invest in their farms after gaining land rights, due to lower incomes. And tenure reforms may not be coupled adequately with investments in training, roads, or other forms of “public capital.”

    What are the other outcomes of land property rights interventions?

    Qualitative studies show that social outcomes such as displacement, conflict or gender equality are unpredictable and sometimes negative, such as displacing the poor and reducing women’s access to land.

    How has this intervention worked?

    The studies suggest that land property rights interventions contribute to welfare through improved perceived security and resulting long-term investment. No studies showed that land property rights interventions improve access to credit.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    Land property rights interventions are promising in terms of economic outcomes but the context should be considered carefully, because benefits may not outweigh negative social consequences, especially in areas with strong existing customary land rights. More research is needed on social outcomes.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for qualitative and quantitative studies published until October 2012; the search for qualitative studies was updated in July 2013. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in January 2014.

  • Spanish

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Additional Info

  • Authors Heather Strang, Lawrence W. Sherman, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Daniel Woods, Barak Ariel
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Restorative justice conferencing (RJC) using face-to-face meetings of offenders and victims: effects on offender recidivism and victim satisfaction
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.12
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Face-to-face restorative justice conferences are cost-effective in reducing reoffending and increasing victim satisfaction

    Face-to-face restorative justice conferences (RJCs) between offenders and victims have a modest but highly cost-effective impact on reoffending. Victims’ satisfaction with the handling of their cases is consistently higher among those who attend RJCs, compared to those dealt with solely by standard criminal justice processes, usually the courts.

    What is this review about?

    Restorative justice approaches attempt to repair the harms caused by a crime rather than harming the offender. This review covers face-to-face RJCs in which the offender meets the victims of the crime to discuss the offence and its consequences.

    During face-to-face RJCs participants describe how they are connected to the crime, victims describe the harm caused, and everyone – including the offender – talks about how the harm might be repaired.

    This review compares the effects of face-to-face restorative justice conferencing with standard criminal justice alone on (a) repeat offending for a two-year period after the disposal of the case and (b) measures of victim satisfaction.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of face-to-face restorative justice conferences on repeat offending and victim satisfaction. The systematic review includes 10 studies.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies have all the following characteristics: (1) a randomized design to test the effects of face-to-face RJCs compared with standard criminal justice alone; (2) a report on face-to-face RJCs between at least one victim of a crime and at least one of the offenders involved; (3) provide data on the frequency of convictions or re-arrest for two years after the disposal of the case in a way which allows calculation of the effects of both treatments; and (4) published in English after 1994.

    Ten eligible studies were identified from the UK (7), Australia (2), and the USA (1). Different experiments randomly assigned cases to face-to-face RJC; some occurred at pre-trial diversion from prosecution, some occurred after conviction prior to sentencing, and others after offenders had been jailed or were on probation. The eligible studies included violent crime and property crime, as well as both youth and adult offenders.

    How effective are face-to-face RJC interventions?

    The average effect of the ten studies indicated that face-to-face RJCs resulted in offenders committing significantly less crime than their counterparts randomly assigned to standard criminal justice alone. The effect of RJCs on violent crime is larger than its effects on property crime.

    For victims, again comparing those whose cases were assigned to RJCs with those assigned to standard criminal justice, those taking part in face-to-face RJCs express higher levels of satisfaction with the handling of their cases, are more likely to receive an apology from offenders and rate these apologies as sincere, be less inclined to want to seek revenge, and suffer less from post traumatic stress symptoms.

    What are the implications of this review for policy makers and decision makers?

    Compared with standard criminal justice, usually through the courts, face-to-face RJCs reduce the frequency of subsequent crimes among offenders who are willing to take part in these programmes and whose victims are also willing to consent to RJCs.

    The effects of face-to-face RJCs on the frequency of subsequent offending are strongest when these programmes are in addition to conventional justice procedures. The use of face-to-face RJCs appears to be highly cost effective: data from the seven UK experiments indicates that the value of benefits of averted crimes is eight times the cost of delivering RJCs.

    What are the research implications of this review?

    Recruitment and retention for face-to-face RJCs among victims and offenders requires skill and more attention is needed about how to increase uptake.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The search was completed in 2012. This Campbell systematic review was published on 1 November 2013.

  • Norwegian

    OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, er kostnadseffektive ved at de reduserer gjentatte lovbrudd og øker ofrenes tilfredshet

    Møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt (RJC), har en moderat, men svært kostnadseffektiv innvirkning ved at de reduserer gjentatte lovbrudd. Ofre som har deltatt på slike møter med lovbryteren, ansikt til ansikt, er konsekvent mer tilfredse med saksbehandlingen enn ofre som kun har gjennomgått standard rettsprosesser, vanligvis via domstolene.

    Hva handler denne oversikten om?

    Restituerende rettspraksis («Restorative Justice-metoder») har som mål å bøte på de skadene en kriminell handling har påført offeret, fremfor å straffe lovbryteren. Denne oversikten omhandler møter der lovbryteren møter offeret ansikt til ansikt for å snakke om lovbruddet og hvilke konsekvenser det har fått for offeret.

    Under møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, beskriver deltakerne at de får ny innsikt i lovbruddet. Offeret beskriver de skadene lovbruddet har påført ham/henne, og begge parter – også lovbryteren – snakker om hva som kan gjøres for å bøte på skaden.

    Denne oversikten sammenligner effekten av møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, med vanlig rettspraksis når det gjelder: (a) gjentatte lovbrudd i løpet av en periode på to år etter at saken er avsluttet, og (b) mål på tilfredshet hos offeret.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske Campbell-oversikten undersøker effekten av møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, på gjentatte lovbrudd og på offerets tilfredshet. Den systematiske oversikten inkluderer ti studier.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert?

    Alle de inkluderte studiene har følgende egenskaper: (1) randomisert design for å teste effekten av møter mellom offer og lovbryter, ansikt til ansikt, sammenlignet med standard rettspraksis; (2) en rapport over et møte ansikt til ansikt mellom minst ett offer for et lovbrudd og minst én av de involverte lovbryterne; (3) innsamling av data om hyppigheten av domfellelser eller gjentatte arrestasjoner to år etter at saken er avsluttet, på en måte som gjør det mulig å beregne effekten av begge metodene; og (4) publisert på engelsk etter 1994.

    Ti kvalifiserte studier ble identifisert fra Storbritannia (7), Australia (2) og USA (1). I ulike eksperimenter ble saker randomisert til møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt. Noen av møtene foregikk som en del av en idømt ungdomsstraff, noen foregikk etter domfellelse før straffeutmåling, og andre foregikk etter at lovbryteren var blitt fengslet eller løslatt på prøve. De kvalifiserte studiene inkluderte voldskriminalitet og vinningsforbrytelser, og gjaldt både ungdomsforbrytere og voksne forbrytere.

    Hvor effektive er møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt?

    Gjennomsnittsresultatet av de ti studiene tydet på at møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, førte til betydelig færre gjentatte lovbrudd blant lovbrytere som deltok i slike møter, enn blant lovbrytere som ble straffeforfulgt på vanlig måte. Møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, har større effekt ved voldskriminalitet enn ved vinningsforbrytelser.

    Ofre som deltok på møter mellom offer og lovbryter, ansikt til ansikt, gav uttrykk for høyere tilfredshet med saksbehandlingen enn ofre som fikk saken behandlet via det tradisjonelle rettsapparatet, hadde høyere sannsynlighet for å få en unnskyldning fra lovbryteren og oppfatte unnskyldningen som oppriktig, hadde lavere sannsynlighet for å ønske hevn, og hadde færre symptomer på posttraumatisk stress.

    Hvilken betydning har denne oversikten for politikere og beslutningstakere?

    Sammenlignet med vanlig kriminalrettspraksis, som vanligvis foregår via domstolene, gir møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, redusert hyppighet av gjentatte lovbrudd blant lovbrytere som er villige til å delta i slike programmer og som har ofre som er villige til å stille opp på slike møter.

    Møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, har sterkest effekt på hyppigheten av gjentatte lovbrudd når disse programmene kommer i tillegg til vanlig rettspraksis. Bruken av møter mellom ofre og lovbrytere, ansikt til ansikt, ser ut til å være svært kostnadseffektiv: Data fra sju eksperimenter i Storbritannia tyder på at verdien av fordelene med avvergede lovbrudd er åtte ganger høyere enn kostnadene ved å gjennomføre programmet.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Søket ble fullført i 2012. Denne systematiske Campbell-oversikten ble publisert fredag 1. november 2013.

  • Spanish

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Additional Info

  • Authors Ben Parker, William Turner
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.13

Additional Info

  • Authors Gracia LT Fellmeth, Joanna Nurse, Catherine Heffernan, Shakiba Habibula, Dinesh Sethi
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.14

Additional Info

  • Authors John D. Westbrook, Carlton J. Fong, Chad Nye, Ann Williams, Oliver Wendt, Tara Cortopassi
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Pre-graduation transition services for persons with autism spectrum disorders: effects on employment outcomes
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.11

Additional Info

  • Authors Patrick Tolan, David Henry, Michael Schoeny, Arin Bass, Peter Lovegrove, Emily Nichols
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Mentoring interventions to affect juvenile delinquency and associated problems
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.4073/csr.2013.10

Additional Info

  • Authors Janice Tripney, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Mark Newman, Kimberly Hovish, Chris Brown, Katarzyna T. Steinka-Fry, Eric Wilkey
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) interventions to improve the employability and employment of young people in low- and middle-income countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.9
  • Records available in English, Hindi, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Technical and vocational education and training for young people has a small positive effect on employment outcomes

    Youth in developing countries are three times more likely than adults to work in the informal sector in jobs with offering limited personal and social benefits. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) are a means to expand opportunities for marginalised youth. TVET interventions have a small but positive effect on employment outcomes for young people.

    What did the review study?

    Many young people in developing countries work in low quality jobs that have low potential for career development or supporting economic growth. This is particularly problematic for developing countries given the continually significant labour productivity gap between developing and developed regions.

    With increasing emphasis on work and skills based solutions to economic completion and poverty there is a renewed focus on TVET. This review examines the effectiveness of these TVET interventions on employment and employability outcomes of young people in low and middle-income countries, and which factors may moderate these effects.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of technical and vocational education intervention in developing countries on employment and employability outcomes of young people. The review summarises findings from 26 studies conducted in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, East Asia, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Participants were between the ages of 15-24. Ten studies were used for statistical meta-analysis.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies had to (1) study a TVET intervention, (2) report outcomes for youth aged 15-24 located in low-or middle-income countries; and (3) use an experimental or valid quasi-experimental research design.

    A total of 26 studies were included in the review. The studies assess the effectiveness of 20 different TVET interventions from various countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, East Asia, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The study settings included ten upper-middle income countries–Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Latvia, Mexico, Panama and Peru; two lower-middle income countries – India and Bhutan; and one low-income country – Kenya.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall, TVET interventions have a small but positive effect on all but one of the employment outcomes measured.

    However, there was considerable variation in effects between studies. A main factor driving these differences was study quality. Lower quality studies find a significantly larger effect. Hence the meta-analysed effect size is inflated, and should be based on studies of at least medium quality.

    No one model of TVET intervention was found to be better than others and there was inadequate statistical power to detect moderating effects of the variables tested.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    While the review provides some evidence of TVET interventions having positive effects on employability and employment for young people, several limitations of both the included studies and the review itself prevents one from drawing direct and strong inferences from the result of the analyses.

    So, in the absence of evidence in support of a particular, and possibly expensive, intervention, opting for the cheapest and/or most culturally acceptable models may be the best approach. At the same time, because the effects observed in this review are generally small and were difficult to detect, it is of some importance that future programmes are evaluated rigorously and that the different stakeholders involved think carefully about how to improve programmes to create larger effects on the outcomes. To build the evidence base further, many more of the TVET interventions currently in existence in developing countries need to be rigorously evaluated, and the results reported and disseminated efficiently.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until September 2012. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in September 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • Hindi

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Hindi.

Additional Info

  • Authors Maia Lindstrøm, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Krystyna Kowalski, Trine Filges, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.7

Additional Info

  • Authors Sarah Baird, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Berk Ozler, Michael Woolcock
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Relative effectiveness of conditional and unconditional cash transfers for schooling outcomes in developing countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.8
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Enforcing conditions makes cash transfers more effective in increasing enrolments

    Cash transfers – conditional or not – improve school enrolment and attendance, but there is limited evidence of effects on learning outcomes. If conditions are monitored and enforced the effect on enrolment is greater.

    What is the review about?

    In many countries, primary school enrolment is still not universal. More than 20 per cent of children do not attend school in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and around of a third of those who do enrol drop out before completing sixth grade. Secondary school enrolments are far lower. In many countries, fewer than half of all children attend secondary school. And the quality of education is low, with many students having low literacy and maths skills after several years of schooling.

    Cash transfer programmes, targeted at poor families, have become a popular means of tackling low enrolment. Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) for schooling are provided to poor households provided that children of school age enrol and attend school. Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) are provided without conditions.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of conditional and unconditional cash transfer programmes on education outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review summarizes findings from 35 studies.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    What studies are included?

    Eligible studies evaluate either conditional or unconditional cash transfer programmes, the

    conditional programmes having at least one condition explicitly related to schooling. Reported outcomes must include at least one quantifiable measure of enrolment, attendance or test scores.

    Thirty-five studies are included in the review: five UCTs, 26 CCTs, and four studies that directly compare CCTs to UCTs.

    Do cash transfers improve education outcomes?

    Both conditional and unconditional cash transfer programmes increase enrolment compared to no program. But they have at best a small effect on learning outcomes, although the evidence base on learning is small.

    Do conditions matter?

    Cash transfers have a larger effect on enrolment if there are conditions that are strictly monitored and enforced. Programs that are explicitly conditional, monitor compliance and penalize non-compliance have substantively larger effects—increasing the odds of enrolment by 60% compared to less than 20% for programs with no conditions (see Figure).

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The search for this review was updated in April 2013, and the review published in September 2013.

  • Spanish

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