Better evidence for a better world

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Better evidence for a better world
Better evidence for a better world

Better evidence for a better world (177)

Additional Info

  • Authors Patrice Villettaz, Gwladys Gillieron, Martin Killias
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title The effects on re-offending of custodial vs non-custodial sanctions
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.1
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Effects of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions on re-offending

    Custodial sentences, such as prison, are no better than non-custodial sentences in reducing re-offending.

    What is this review about?

    Those who commit illegal acts may re-offend. It is important to know which sanctions reduce re-offending and if some approaches are more effective than others.

    There are two kinds of sanctions. Custodial sanctions deprive offenders of their freedom of movement by placing them in institutions such as prisons, halfway houses, or ‘boot camps’. Non-custodial sanctions (also known as ‘alternative’ or ‘community’ sanctions) include community work, electronic monitoring, and fines. This review examines whether custodial and non-custodial sanctions have different effects on the rates of re-offending.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review compares effects of custodial and non-custodial sentences on re-offending. The authors found fourteen high-quality studies, including three randomised controlled trials and two natural experiments.

    Which studies are included in this review?

    Included studies had at least two groups: a custodial group and a non-custodial group. Sanctions had to be imposed following a criminal offence, and there had to be at least one measure of re-offending, such as new arrests.

    Fourteen high-quality studies comparing custodial and non-custodial sentences are included in the analysis. The studies span the period from 1961 to 2013 and are mostly from the USA, Europe and Australia.

    Do custodial sanctions have different effects from non-custodial sanctions on re-offending?

    No. High quality studies show that custodial sentences are no better or worse than non-custodial sentences in reducing re-offending.

    Some studies with weaker designs suggest that prison is followed by higher re-offending rates than non-custodial sanctions. However, these results may be affected by selection bias; that is, offenders who were less likely to re-offend were more likely to be given a non-custodial sentence.

    What do the results mean?

    Imprisonment is no more effective than community-based sanctions in reducing re-offending. Despite this evidence, almost all societies across the world continue to use custodial sentences as the main crime control strategy.

    In terms of rehabilitation, short confinement is not better or worse than “alternative” solutions. Many studies of sentencing practices were found that used weak and biased methods. Better evidence should be used by policy makers and practitioners, for example from randomised controlled trials or natural experiments. Although several such studies are included in this review, additional high quality studies are needed.

    Other non-custodial approaches to offender rehabilitation also need to be evaluated, such as those provided through employment or other social networks.

    How up to date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies done from 1961 up to 2013.

  • Norwegian

    CAMPBELLS OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Effekt av frihetsstraff kontra ikke-frihetsberøvende straff på gjentatte lovbrudd

    Frihetsstraff, som fengsling, fungerer ikke bedre enn ikke-frihetsberøvende straff når det gjelder å redusere gjentatte lovbrudd.

    Hva handler denne oversikten om?

    Lovbrytere kan begå nye lovbrudd. Det er viktig å vite hvilke typer straff som reduserer gjentatte lovbrudd, og hvorvidt noen metoder er mer effektive enn andre for å redusere gjentatte lovbrudd.

    Det er to typer straff. Frihetsstraff berøver lovbryterne bevegelsesfriheten ved å plassere dem i institusjoner, som fengsler, frigangshjem eller disiplinærinstitusjoner. Ikke-frihetsberøvende straff (også kalt “alternativ straff” eller “samfunnsstraff”) omfatter samfunnsnyttig arbeid, elektronisk overvåking og bøter. Denne oversikten undersøker om det er forskjell på effekten av frihetsstraff og ikke-frihetsberøvende straff når det gjelder å redusere gjentatte lovbrudd.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske Campbell-oversikten undersøker effekten av frihetsstraff og ikke-frihetsberøvende straff på gjentatte lovbrudd. Forfatterne fant 14 høykvalitetsstudier, deriblant tre randomiserte, kontrollerte studier og to naturlige eksperimenter.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert i denne oversikten?

    De inkluderte studiene besto av minst to grupper: en gruppe som hadde fått frihetsstraff, og en gruppe som hadde fått ikke-frihetsberøvende straff. Straffen måtte være idømt etter et lovbrudd, og det måtte være minst ett mål på gjentatt lovbrudd, som ny arrestasjon.

    14 høykvalitetsstudier som sammenlignet frihetsstraff og ikke-frihetsberøvende straff, er inkludert i analysen. Studiene dekker perioden fra 1961 til 2013 og er for det meste gjennomført i USA, Europa og Australia.

    Har frihetsstraff en annen effekt enn ikke-frihetsberøvende straff når det gjelder å redusere gjentatte lovbrudd?

    Nei. Forskning av høy kvalitet viser at frihetsstraff verken fungerer bedre eller verre enn ikke-frihetsberøvende straff når det gjelder å redusere gjentatte lovbrudd.

    Enkelte studier med svakere design kan tyde på at fengsling gir høyere forekomst av gjentatte lovbrudd enn ikke-frihetsberøvende straff. Disse resultatene kan imidlertid være påvirket av utvelgelsesbias, dvs. at lovbrytere med lavere sannsynlighet for å begå nye lovbrudd hadde høyere sannsynlighet for å bli idømt en ikke-frihetsberøvende straff.

    Hva betyr resultatene?

    Fengsling er ikke mer effektivt enn samfunnsstraff når det gjelder å redusere gjentatte lovbrudd. Til tross for dette forskningsgrunnlager fortsetter nesten alle samfunn i verden å bruke frihetsstraff som viktigste form for kontrollstrategi.

    Når det gjelder rehabilitering er kortvarig frihetsberøvelse verken bedre eller verre enn alternative løsninger.

    Det ble funnet mange studier av straffeutmålingspraksis som brukte svake og tendensiøse metoder. Politikere og fagpersoner bør ta i bruk kunnskap av bedre kvalitet, for eksempel fra randomiserte, kontrollerte studier eller naturlige eksperimenter.

    Denne oversikten inkluderer riktignok flere slike studier, men det er behov for flere studier av høy kvalitet.

    Andre ikke-frihetsberøvende rehabiliteringsmetoder må også vurderes, f.eks. rehabilitering i form av arbeid eller andre samfunnstjenester.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Forfatterne av oversikten søkte etter studier utført fra 1961 til 2013. Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell ble publisert 2. januar 2015.

  • Spanish

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Additional Info

  • Authors Cyrus Samii, Laura Paler, Larry Chavis, Parashar Kulkarni, Matthew Lisiecki
  • Published date 2014-12-19
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Effects of decentralized forest management (DFM) on deforestation and poverty in low- and middle-income countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.10
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Decentralized forest management programs can reduce deforestation rates but there is limited evidence to assess poverty outcomes

    Decentralized forest management programs reduce deforestation rates, although the effects may be modest. More research is needed to assess whether such programs reduce the income of poor households.

    What is this review about?

    An estimated 10–17 per cent of global carbon emissions are the result of deforestation. Forests also act as carbon sinks, absorbing carbon emissions from other sources. Therefore, preserving natural forests is an important component of managing climate change.

    Decentralized forest management programs transfer the responsibility and authority for managing forests (for example, deciding which areas are protected and which areas can be exploited) from central governments to local authorities. Such programs have the primary goal of reducing deforestation, but there is debate as to whether they can meet this goal while also reducing poverty.

    This review examines the evidence for the effects of decentralized forest management programs on deforestation and poverty outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell Systematic Review examines the impact of decentralized forest management on deforestation and poverty in developing countries. The review summarises evidence from eight quantitative studies (quasi-experimental studies with statistical adjustment for bias) and four qualitative studies.

    What studies are included?

    To be eligible for inclusion, studies were required to be conducted in LMICs and evaluate a decentralized forest management program, defined as a program where the formal responsibility for forest management passes from centralized to local authorities. Studies were included if they assessed any type of poverty outcome for populations living near natural growth forest and/or any type of deforestation outcome.

    The studies reporting the effects on forest conservation were conducted in Bolivia, India, Kenya and Nepal; the studies reporting the effects on human welfare were conducted in Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda.

    What are the effects of decentralised forest management on deforestation and poverty?

    Decentralized forest management programs reduce deforestation rates on average, but the effects are modest.

    Decentralized forest management programs increase average household income in the affected community, but little evidence is available on the effects of such programs on the incomes of poor households. One study from Uganda suggests that decentralised forest management programs may reduce the income of poorer households.

    How do institutional and social conditions affect the outcomes of decentralised forest management programs?

    No quantitative evidence was found to assess how institutional and social conditions affect decentralized forest management programs. Qualitative studies show that some programs do not have the institutional capacity to be effective. Democratically accountable programs may have larger effects, but only if the community supports conservation goals.

    How has this intervention worked?

    Decentralized forest management programs are based on the assumption that local authorities have better knowledge of local conditions, leading to more efficient forest policies that are more responsive to community interests. Local authorities may also have better incentives for sustainable forest management.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    Proponents of decentralized forest management programs suggest that such programs can contribute to both environmental and poverty reduction outcomes. This review showed that little research has been conducted on the poverty reduction benefits of such programs, and no studies have jointly evaluated both conservation and poverty outcomes. Research is also lacking in the countries where decentralised forest management has the most potential, such as Indonesia and Brazil.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for qualitative and quantitative studies up to August 2013, and conducted a second search for relevant qualitative studies up to November 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Cyrus Samii, Matthew Lisiecki, Parashar Kulkarni, Laura Paler, Larry Chavis
  • Published date 2014-12-19
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Effects of payment for environmental services (PES) on deforestation and poverty in low- and middle-income countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.11
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Payment for environmental services have only modest effects on deforestation

    Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programmes have only modest effects on deforestation and are not cost-effective. PES programmes are more likely to attract wealthier farmers, and are less effective in poor areas.

    What is the review about?

    Forests store carbon, which helps mitigate the effect of carbon emissions. However, the amount of forest cover is declining at a rate of over seven million hectares a year.

    Payment for environmental services are voluntary contracts to supply an environmental service in exchange for payment. In this review, the service being paid for is the maintenance or rehabilitation of natural forests.

    The review examines how PES programmes affect deforestation, factors affecting programme effectiveness, and whether PES should also aim to reduce poverty.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programmes on deforestation and poverty, and whether environmental and poverty reduction goals conflict with one another. The review summarizes evidence from 11 studies covering six PES programmes in four countries.

    Which studies are included in this review?

    The review includes evaluations of PES programmes which report deforestation and poverty outcomes compared to outcomes in a ‘non-PES’ comparison group. Eleven studies are included, covering six programmes in four countries: Costa Rica, China, Mexico, and Mozambique. Nine studies provide evidence on environmental effects, and two on poverty effects. None of the studies report both poverty and environmental outcomes.

    The studies all have methodological weaknesses. None use random assignment. Therefore, the effect of PES on deforestation may be over-estimated because: (1) PES programmes may be applied to areas of land that landowners do not intend to deforest, and (2) landowners may ‘compensate’ by cutting down trees on lands that are not included in PES programmes.

    How effective are PES programmes?

    There is evidence of moderate quality which suggests that PES programmes only have a modest effect on deforestation. On average the rate of deforestation is reduced by 0.21 per cent per year. This very modest impact means that almost all the land for which PES payments were made would have remained forested even in the absence of payments. PES may be slightly more effective in iincreasing forest cover than it is at preventing deforestation.

    PES improved participating households’ incomes by 4 per cent in Mozambique, and by 14 per cent in China. However, PES programmes are (1) more likely to benefit wealthier landowners, and (2) less effective in poor areas. Participation by the poor is constrained by documentary requirements, high transaction costs, and lack of understanding of programmes.

    One study measured impact separately in poorer areas, reporting no effect on deforestation in those areas. This one finding suggests there may be a trade-off between conservation and poverty reduction efforts, but more evidence is needed.

    What determines how well PES programmes work?

    A number of factors affect how well PES programmes work:

    • Attempts to distribute resources fairly divert programme resources away from areas most at risk from deforestation.
    • Systems of monitoring deforestation may overestimate compliance and effectiveness.
    • Programme effectiveness may be undermined by corruption, for example by landowner organizations lobbying for higher payments.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    The modest effectiveness of PES programmes means that they are not cost-effective. Relative to the extensive investment to measure forest conditions, efforts to assess the effects of PES programmes on deforestation and poverty are limited and methodologically weak. Funders wanting to support cost-effective measures to reduce deforestation should incorporate high-quality evaluation designs into future PES programmes, preferably with random assignment.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published up to November 2013.

  • Spanish

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Additional Info

  • Authors Lisa De La Rue, Joshua Polanin, Dorothy Espelage, Terri Pigott
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title School-based interventions to reduce dating and sexual violence
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.7
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    School-based programs to prevent dating violence do not change behaviour

    School-based programmes to prevent violence in dating relationships improve knowledge about violence, attitudes that are less accepting of violence in relationships, and awareness of appropriate attitudes to conflict resolution. But they have little impact on behaviour change.

    What is this review about?

    Abuse occurs in an estimated 3-10% of young people’s intimate relationships. Psychological, physical and sexual violence in dating relationships have a significant impact on the mental and physical health of young people. Dating violence can have long-term consequences, such as depression, eating disorders, and substance abuse, and affect school performance.

    This review summarises evidence on programmes to prevent dating violence implemented in middle and high schools (Grades 6-12).

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of school-based interventions to reduce or prevent violence in intimate relationships. The review focused on programmes to change attitudes and beliefs, reduce perpetration and victimization, and change behaviours. The systematic review included 23 studies.

    What studies are included?

    Only studies of school-based interventions to reduce or prevent teen dating violence or sexual violence in intimate relationships were included. Some studies used previously developed programmes, such as Love U2, Safe Dates, and Connections: Relationships and Marriage. Others used adapted or newly developed programmes.

    To qualify for inclusion in the review, the programmes had to measure the impacts of the interventions on one or more of the following: (a) knowledge about dating violence, (b) attitudes to dating violence, (c) acceptance of rape myths, (d) dating violence perpetration, (e) dating violence victimization, (f) ability to recognize both safe and unhealthy behaviours in intimate partner disputes.

    Only studies with a well-defined control group were included. This systematic review summarizes data from 23 studies, 14 of which assessed as having a high risk of bias. The included studies were conducted in the USA and Canada.

    How effective are the school-based programmes?

    Prevention programmes improve young people’s knowledge about, and attitudes towards, dating violence. These effects were sustained at follow up. Students in the intervention group showed moderate increases in knowledge about dating violence, a lower acceptance of stereotypical ‘rape myths’, and moderate improvements in appropriately resolving conflicts in interpersonal relationships.

    A limited number of studies examined the effects of school-based programmes on the amount of violence perpetrated and on victimization. These studies suggest that prevention programmes have little impact on behaviour.

    What are the implications of this review for policy makers and decision makers?

    Programmes to prevent violence in relationships are important, because of the impacts that violence has on adolescents’ wellbeing, and the risk of its long-term consequences. Existing programmes need to be designed to better support behaviour change. Skill-building components among pupils may help achieve this goal.

    What are the research implications of this review?

    Prevention efforts require changes to both attitudes and behaviour. Future studies may need to focus more on measuring actual behaviours, rather than just knowledge and attitudes. Programmes may also need to consider contextual social factors, such as the influence of peers, on the social and behavioural development of young people.

    All the included studies were from North America. Research from other areas is needed.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The search was completed in July 2013.

  • Norwegian

    OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Skolebaserte programmer for å forhindre vold i intime relasjoner endrer ikke atferd

    Skolebaserte programmer for å forhindre vold i intime relasjoner øker kunnskapen om vold, fremmer holdninger som tilsier at man er mindre tilbøyelig til å akseptere vold i intime relasjoner, og øker bevisstheten om riktige holdninger for konfliktløsing. Slike programmer utgjør derimot liten effekt på atferd.

    Hva handler denne oversikten om?

    Man estimerer at ulike former for overgrep forekommer i 3–10 % i unges intime relasjoner. Psykisk, fysisk og seksuell vold i intime relasjoner har betydelig innvirkning på unges mentale og fysiske helse. Vold i intime relasjoner kan ha langsiktige konsekvenser, som depresjon, spiseforstyrrelser og rusmisbruk, og kan påvirke skoleprestasjoner.

    Denne oversikten oppsummerer kunnskapen som finnes om programmer i ungdomsskolen eller i videregående skole for å forhindre vold i intime relasjoner hos unge.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell undersøker effekten av skolebaserte tiltak rettet mot å redusere eller forhindre vold i intime relasjoner. Oversikten fokuserte på programmer som skulle endre holdninger og meninger, redusere voldsutøvelse, redusere antallet ofre for vold samt endre atferd. Den systematiske oversikten inkluderte 23 studier.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert?

    Bare studier av skolebaserte tiltak rettet mot å redusere eller forhindre vold i intime relasjoner ble inkludert. Enkelte studier tok i bruk tidligere utviklede programmer som «Love U2», «Safe Dates» og «Connections: Relationships and Marriage». Andre evaluerte tilpassede eller nyutviklede programmer.

    For å kunne bli inkludert i oversikten var det et krav om at studiene målte tiltakenes innvirkning på ett eller flere av følgende: (a) kunnskap om vold, (b) holdninger til vold, (c) aksept av voldtektsmyter, (d) det å utøve vold, (e) det å bli offer for vold og (f) evnen til å erkjenne både trygg og usunn atferd i intime partnerkonflikter.

    Bare studier med en godt definert kontrollgruppe ble inkludert. Denne systematiske oversikten oppsummerer data fra 23 studier. 14 av disse ble vurdert å ha en høy risiko for systematiske skjevheter. De inkluderte studiene ble gjennomført i USA og Canada.

    Hvor effektive er de skolebaserte programmene?

    Forebyggende programmer øker unges kunnskap om og holdninger til vold. Disse effektene så man også ved oppfølging over tid. Elever i tiltaksgruppen viste en moderat økning i kunnskap om vold, mindre aksept av stereotypiske “voldtektsmyter” og en moderat bedring når det gjaldt å løse konflikter i mellommenneskelige relasjoner på riktig måte.

    Noen få studier undersøkte effekten av skolebaserte programmer på mengden vold som ble begått, og andelen ofre for vold. Disse studiene tyder på at forebyggende programmer utgjør liten forskjell på atferd.

    Hvilken betydning har denne oversikten for politikere og beslutningstakere?

    Det er viktig med programmer for å forhindre vold i relasjoner på grunn av innvirkningen vold har på unges liv samt på grunn av risikoen for langsiktige konsekvenser. Eksisterende programmer må bearbeides for bedre å understøtte atferdsendring. Ferdighetstrening blant elever kan bidra til å oppnå dette målet.

    Hvilken forskningsmessig betydning har denne oversikten?

    Forebyggende innsatser krever at både holdninger og atferd endres. Fremtidige studier må kanskje fokusere mer på å måle faktisk atferd i stedet for bare kunnskap og holdninger. Programmene må kanskje også ta hensyn til kontekstuelle sosiale faktorer, som innflytelsen fra andre unge, når det gjelder unges sosiale og atferdsmessige utvikling.

    Alle de inkluderte studiene ble gjennomført i Nord-Amerika. Det trengs forskning fra andre deler av verden.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Søket ble fullført i juli 2013. Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell ble publisert 28. mai 2014.

  • Spanish

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Additional Info

  • Authors Brian Reichow, Erin Barton, Brian Boyd, Kara Hume
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.9

Additional Info

  • Authors Jos Vaessen, Ana Rivas, Maren Duvendack, Richard Palmer Jones, Frans Leeuw, Ger van Gils, Ruslan Lukach, Nathalie Holvoet, Johan Bastiaensen, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Hugh Waddington
  • Published date 2014-11-03
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review
  • Title The effect of microcredit on women’s control over household spending in developing countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.8

Additional Info

  • Authors Hugh Waddington, Birte Snilstveit, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Martina Vojtkova, Jock Anderson, Howard White
  • Published date 2014-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Farmer field schools for improving farming practices and farmer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/CSR.2014.6
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Farmer field schools improve agricultural practices, yields and incomes in small pilot programmes, but not in large-scale programmes

    Farmer field schools improve farmers’ knowledge and adoption of better practices, and increase agricultural production and income. However, knowledge of better practices does not spread to neighbouring farmers who do not participate in the program, and large-scale programmes are not effective.

    What is this review about?

    The purpose of farmer field schools is to improve farmers’ skills to empower them to make better decisions. Different programmes have different objectives, but they often aim to reduce pesticides use, promote better farming practices and boost yields or income. Field schools use facilitators who employ participatory, experiential learning methods over an entire growing season. For example, farmer field schools use ‘practice plots’ where farmers can compare results from different farming methods. In contrast to traditional agricultural extension projects, which mainly teach simple practices such as applying fertilisers, farmer field schools often teach holistic techniques, such as integrated pest management.

    Farmer field schools have been widely used across Asia, Africa and Latin America, reaching an estimated 10–15 million farmers.

    This review examines the effectiveness of farmer field schools in changing farmer knowledge and practice, and improving yields, income, environmental impact and farmer empowerment.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell Systematic Review examines the effectiveness of farmer field schools in improving intermediate outcomes (such as knowledge and pesticide use) and final outcomes (such as agricultural yields, incomes and empowerment) in low- and middle-income countries, as well as implementation factors associated with programme success and failure. The review sythesises evidence from 92 impact evaluations, of which 15 were of sufficient quality for policy-oriented findings, and 20 qualitative studies.

    What studies are included?

    The review includes 92 impact evaluation studies conducted in low or middle-income countries. The review also includes 20 qualitative evaluations of the barriers to and enablers of change in farmer field school projects.

    What are the effects of farmer field schools on agricultural and environmental outcomes?

    Farmer field schools improve farmers’ knowledge and adoption of beneficial practices, and reduce overuse of pesticides. This leads to positive outcomes for farmers: on average, a 13 per cent increase in agricultural yields and a 20 per cent increase in income. Farmer field schools also reduce pesticide use and environmental degradation. However, the evidence for these outcomes comes from short-term evaluations of pilot programmes, and no studies with a low risk of bias are available.

    In programmes that were delivered at a national scale, studies conducted more than two years after implementation did not show any positive outcomes from the programme. For large-scale programmes, recruiting and training appropriate facilitators was problematic.

    What are other outcomes of farmer field schools?

    Empowerment is a major objective of many farmer field schools, but few rigorous studies collected information on this outcome. A few qualitative studies suggest participating farmers feel more confident.

    Farmers who do not participate in farmer field schools do not learn from neighbours who do participate. The complex concepts taught in farmer field schools may be difficult to learn through conversations and self-study, so the experience gained in farmer field schools may be a key reason the intervention works.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Farmer field schools can be effective in specific contexts and may be suitable for gradual scale-up, but are unlikely to be suitable for large-scale problems. However, the evidence base on large-scale implementation of farmer field schools is limited. Hence more rigorous studies, examining the implementation and effectiveness of nationwide programmes, are needed.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until October 2012.

  • Spanish

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Additional Info

  • Authors Sean Grant, Amanda Parsons, Jennifer Burton, Paul Montgomery, Kristen Underhill, Evan Mayo-Wilson
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.3
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Home visits appear not to be effective, but better evidence may show some benefits for some groups from some interventions

    Home visits by health and social care professionals aim to prevent cognitive and functional impairment in older adults, thus reducing institutionalisation and prolonging life. Overall, home visits do not achieve these aims. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine how and for whom home visits may be effective.

    What did the review study?

    Home visits by health and social care professionals are a preventive intervention targeted primarily towards older adults. Their main aim is to maintain the health and autonomy of community-dwelling older adults. This type of preventive intervention involves strategies to reduce a variety of risk factors older adults face for morbidity and mortality relating to physical, functional, psychological, environmental and social issues.

    This review examines the effectiveness of home visits in reducing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults. Factors that may moderate effects are identified.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effectiveness of home visits in preventing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults, as well as identifying factors that may moderate effects. The review summarises findings from 64 studies.

    Fourteen of the studies were undertaken in Great Britain, and the USA each, 11 in Canada, 5 in the Netherlands, 3 in Japan, 4 in Australia and New Zealand each, 2 each in Denmark, Taiwan, and Sweden, and 1 each in Switzerland, Finland and Italy.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies are randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of visits by health or social care professionals (not directly related to recent hospital discharge) for persons aged 65 years and above who are living at home. Less than 50% of the study population had to be without dementia.

    A total of 64 studies with 28,642 participants were included. All studies are from developed countries, with the largest number from the USA and the UK, with 14 studies each.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall home visits are not effective in maintaining the health and autonomy of community-dwelling older adults. Preventive home visits did not reduce absolute mortality, and did not have a significant overall effect on the number of people who were institutionalised.

    There is high quality evidence of no effect on falls from interventions targeting fall prevention. There is low quality evidence of small statistically significant positive effects for functioning and quality of life.

    It is possible that some programmes have modest effects on institutionalisation and hospitalisation. However, heterogeneity in target population and intervention design, as well as poor reporting of in studies of design, implementation and the control condition make this difficult to determine.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Home visits for community-dwelling older adults do not significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. Estimates of treatment effects were statistically precise. So further small studies of multi-component interventions compared with usual care would be unlikely to change the conclusion.

    However, there is a possibility that there may be beneficial effects of some interventions for some populations. Poor reporting of how interventions and comparisons were implemented means these cannot be identified in this review. If researchers continue evaluations on these types of interventions, a clear theory of change describing the programme theory of change and implementation is needed, and all measured outcomes must be reported.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until December 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Clare Toon, Kurinchi Gurusamy
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Forensic nurse examiners vs doctors for the forensic examination of rape and sexual assault complainants
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.5
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Forensic nurses provide cheaper and better clinical care for rape and sexual assault complainants than doctor counterparts

    Sexual assault nurse examiners (SANE) or Forensic nurse examiners (FNE) are fully qualified nurses, trained to gather forensic evidence in rape and sexual assault cases. This review compares the reliability and efficacy of FNE/SANE health professionals with that of doctors. FNE/SANE provides cheaper services and better clinical care. However, more research is needed, as the evidence base is weak.

    What did the review study?

    In the UK incidents of rape and sexual assaults are referred to a sexual assault referral centre (SARC). These are typically headed by forensic doctors who conduct forensic examinations, collecting and documenting findings and preparing statements for court when requested by the police. In the United States, the equivalent institution for SARCs are headed by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANE).

    This review compares the reliability and efficacy of forensic nurse examiners (FNE) with that of doctors for the forensic examinations of rape and sexual assault complaints.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review compares the reliability and efficacy of foreign nurse examiners/sexual assault nurse examiners with that of doctors for the forensic examinations of rape and sexual assault complaints. The review summarise findings from eight studies conducted in the USA and UK. The participants were complainants of rape or sexual assaults examined by SANE and non-SANE health professionals. A total of 2,700 participants were included in the studies with 1,223 complainants cared for by a SANE health professional and 1,477 by a non-SANE health professional.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on the following outcomes using quasi-experimental trial designs: complainant quality of life, conviction and prosecution rates, complainant mortality within 30 days, time from complain to examination, provision of STI, pregnancy and HIV prophylaxis, collection and documentation of rape kits and forensic examination, number of rape kits admissible as evidence, and the average cost per price. Participants include complainants of rape or sexual assaults regardless of age or gender. The comparison group comprised of participants examined and treated by a non-SANE health professional.

    A total of 8 studies consisting of 2,700 participants were included in the final evaluation. The studies were conducted in the UK and USA.

    What are the main findings from this review?

    Treatment by forensic nurses results in better outcomes than treatment by doctors in a number of cases. Complainants receive better medical care: they are more likely to have a forensic examination (rape kit) and to have it documented, and they are more likely to receive STI and pregnancy prophylaxis than those in the non-SANE group.

    More rape kits in the SANE group were admissible as evidence in court from complainants handled by forensic nurses than doctors. However, no difference was found in conviction or prosecution rates. There was no data available on the complainant quality of life.

    Sexual assault nurse examiners are less expensive than their doctor counterparts.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The main results presented in this review show that FNEs/SANEs are better in terms of providing better medical care and cheaper services than doctors for the forensic examinations of rape and sexual assault complaints. However due to the limited data available to this review, the evidence-base for this conclusion is weak and as such, the evidence is insufficient to support making any significant changes to current services provided for rape and sexual assault complainants.

    The most important outcome to be considered was the quality of life of the complainants. However, there was no data available on that. Further research is thus needed to investigate the quality of life of the complainants post rape and forensic examination, both on the short and long-term. Additionally, studies evaluating the overall quality and efficiency of nurse and doctor-led services with all the outcomes listed above should be conducted on a much larger scale than to establish a stronger evidence-base.

    Finally, research is necessary to identify the barriers to the implementation of a nurse-led service for the forensic examination of complainants of rape and sexual assault, particularly in the UK.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until February 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Sally Simpson, Melissa Rorie, Mariel Elise Alper, Natalie Schell-Busey, William Laufer, N. Craig Smith
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Corporate crime deterrence
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Corporate crime: laws and regulations have only small effects on corporations

    Laws have a modest effect on preventing non-compliance among firms and for the geographic unit governed by the law, but not on individuals. Regulatory policy deters non-compliance among individuals but not companies. Using more than one intervention at the same time was found to have a small and consistent deterrent effect both on individuals and corporations.

    What is this review about?

    Corporate crime includes crimes committed by individual employees and those committed by institutions. Some offences are minor violations. Others are more serious and complicated, involving multiple organisations, possibly across national boundaries.

    There is a lack of high-quality studies. The limited data on corporate crime is scattered, reporting is often inconsistent, and the quality and methods of research on corporate crime varies widely.

    Criminology has focused more on street crime rather than corporate crime. This lack has made it difficult to build evidence-based policies for corporate crime prevention and control.

    The review examines the effectiveness of formal legal and administrative strategies by law enforcement agencies, legislative bodies, and regulatory bodies to lower the risk of non- compliance at both the organisational level and individual level.                

     What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of interventions to deter corporate crime. The review examines the effectiveness of formal legal and administrative strategies to lower the risk of non-compliance. The authors summarized 106 studies, and the interventions are grouped into six intervention categories, each with sub-categories. The intervention groups are: (1) laws, (2) punitive sanctions (e.g. arrest, fines, or a likelihood of prosecution), (3) non-punitive actions by regulatory agencies (e.g. cease and desist orders) (4) regulatory policies (e.g. company inspections), (5) other sanctions, and (6) multiple treatments.

    What studies are included?

    This systematic review summarizes data from 106 studies of corporate crime prevention and control. These studies included a wide range of experimental and non-experimental methodologies using data from a wide variety of data sources, e.g. from official agencies, corporate reports, and survey responses.

    Six treatment types were identified: (1) laws, (2) punitive sanctions such as arrest, fines, or a likelihood of prosecution, (3) non-punitive sanctions by regulatory agencies such as cease and desist orders (4) regulatory policies, e.g. company inspections, and (5) multiple treatments.

    How effective are interventions to deter non-compliance?

    Legal interventions have a small deterrent effect on company non-compliance and at the geographical level. There is not enough data to determine the effects of legal interventions on deterring individual offending.

    Regulatory interventions have a modest but consistent deterrent effect on individual offending. Their effects on deterrence at the company level were mixed.

    The use of more than one intervention at the same time was found to have a small but consistent effect on deterring non-compliance among individuals and among corporations.

    Evidence on the effects of the other interventions on non-compliance was mixed. Conclusions about their effects therefore cannot be drawn.

    Overall, the quality of evidence was low, with several contradictory findings. Older studies were more likely to find significant effects, but this may reflect weaker study designs.

    What are the research and policy implications of this review?

    Given the potentially serious impacts of corporate crime, policy makers and decision makers need to identify ways to reduce corporate crime. However, the basic findings of this review are inconclusive. There is an urgent need for high-quality empirical studies of interventions to deter and control illegal behaviours. This research can be informed by specific insights reported in this review.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The search was completed in 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

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