Better evidence for a better world

Campbell evidence and gap maps

Coming soon – Campbell EGMs are a new evidence synthesis product. Plain language summaries of our EGMs will be published on this website. The interactive EGMs and full EGM reports will be available in our journal on the Wiley Online Library platform: click here.



Learn more about Campbell EGMs

Campbell-partnered EGMs

Campbell has produced maps on other topics, sometimes in partnership with other organisations.



See the Campbell-partnered EGMs
Better evidence for a better world
Better evidence for a better world

Better evidence for a better world (177)

Additional Info

  • Authors Brandy R. Maynard, Kristen Brendel, Jeffrey J. Bulanda, David Heyne, Aaron Thompson, Terri Pigott
  • Published date 2015-05-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Psychosocial interventions for school refusal with primary and secondary school students
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.12
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Effects of psychosocial interventions for school refusal with primary and secondary students

    Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for students with severe emotional distress increases school attendance but has no effect on anxiety.

    What is this review about?

    Students who have difficulty in attending school due to emotional distress may display school refusal. Unlike truancy, school refusal is a result of students’ fear, anxiety or depression. The review summarises studies of psychosocial interventions. These interventions are primarily behavioural therapy, involving relaxation or social skills training, or cognitive behavioural therapy.

    This review assessed whether psychosocial interventions for school refusal reduce anxiety and increase attendance.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of psychosocial interventions for school refusal. The review summarizes the findings from eight studies.

    What studies are included?

    Eight studies, covering 435 school age participants with school refusal, are summarised in this review.

    The review included rigorous evaluations published between January 1980 and November 2013. Studies, which assessed effects of medications only, or studies conducted in residential treatment centres, were not included. All but one study assessed the effects of a variant of cognitive behavioural therapy, and most took place in a clinic setting.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Medium quality evidence shows that cognitive- behavioural therapy (CBT) increases school attendance but has no effect on anxiety.

    The effect of the psychosocial interventions on anxiety was not statistically significant. The effects on attendance were significant.

    Several risks of bias were present in most studies included in the review, which could upwardly bias the estimated effects. Many included studies did not clearly describe how they randomly assigned participants to treatment or control groups. Therefore, the current estimate of treatment effects from the eight rigorous studies should be treated with caution.

    What do the results mean?

    School is an important part of young people’s development. So it is important to address school refusal to ensure that all students engage with school appropriately. The most commonly studied interventions for school refusal are behavioural approaches and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). The goal of these programs is to reduce the young person’s anxiety and increase attendance.

    The evidence provides tentative support for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of school refusal. But there is an overall lack of rigorous studies to draw a firm conclusion. Future studies should have larger sample sizes and pay attention to potential biases. Studies should also consider other types of interventions for rigorous evaluation. Assessing long-term effects may provide additional insights for the mixed findings of the effects of interventions on attendance and anxiety.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    This review started in November 2013, and was published in May 2015.

  • Norwegian

    OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Effekter av psykososiale tiltak for å redusere skolevegring hos elever i barne- og ungdomsskolen

    Kognitiv atferdsterapi (KAT) for elever med alvorlige emosjonelle kriser øker skoledeltakelsen, men har ingen effekt på angst.

    Hva handler denne oversikten om?

    Elever som har problemer med å være på skolen på grunn av emosjonelle kriser kan utvikle skolevegring. I motsetning til skulking er skolevegring et resultat av elevers redsel, angst eller depresjon. Denne oversikten oppsummerer studier av psykososiale tiltak. Disse tiltakene er hovedsakelig atferdsterapi som kan innebære avslapning, sosial ferdighetstrening, eller kognitiv atferdsterapi.

    Denne oversikten undersøkte om psykososiale tiltak mot skolenekting reduserte angst og økte skoledeltakelsen.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell undersøker effektene av psykososiale tiltak for å redusere skolevegring blant elever i barne- og ungdomsskolen. Oversikten oppsummerer funnene fra åtte studier.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert?

    Åtte studier med totalt 435 elver med skolevegring er oppsummert i denne oversikten.

    Oversikten omfatter studier publisert mellom januar 1980 og november 2013. Studier som utelukkende så på effektene av legemidler, eller studier som ble gjennomført ved institusjoner for døgnbehandling, ble ikke inkludert. Alle unntatt én studie undersøkte effektene av kognitiv atferdsterapi i en eller annen variant, og de fleste ble gjennomført i et klinisk miljø.

    Hva er de viktigste resultatene i denne oversikten?

    Forskningsresultater av middels god kvalitet viser at kognitiv atferdsterapi (KAT) øker skoledeltakelsen, men ikke har noen effekt på angst.

    Effekten av de psykososiale tiltakene på angst var ikke statistisk signifikant. Effekten på skoledeltakelse var signifikant.

    Det var risiko for systematiske skjevheter i de fleste studiene i oversikten, som kan fordreie de estimerte effektene i en positiv retning. Mange inkluderte studier beskrev ikke klart nok hvordan de randomiserte deltakere til behandlings- eller kontrollgrupper. Derfor må resultatene tolkes med forsiktighet.

    Hva betyr resultatene?

    Skole er en viktig del av barn og unges utvikling. Det er derfor viktig å ta for seg skolevegring for å sikre at alle elever har et godt forhold til det å gå på skolen. De mest hyppig undersøkte tiltakene mot skolenekting er atferdsmessige tilnærminger og kognitiv atferdsterapi (KAT). Målet med disse programmene er å redusere angst hos den unge og øke skoledeltakelsen.

    Resultatene tilsier at kognitiv atferdsterapi (KAT) kan være effektiv mot skolevegring. Men det er generelt for få robuste studier til at man kan trekke noen sikre konklusjoner. Fremtidige studier bør ha et større deltakergrunnlag og være oppmerksomme på potensielle systematiske skjevheter. Man bør også vurdere å undersøke effekten av andre typer tiltak for denne gruppen. Det trengs også studier med lengre oppfølgingstid som kan si noe om effektene på angst på lengre sikt.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Denne oversikten ble påbegynt i november 2013 og ble publisert i mai 2015.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Elizabeth Kristjansson, Damian K Francis, Selma Liberato, Maria Benkhalti Jandu, Vivian Andrea Welch, Malek Batal, Trisha Greenhalgh, Tamara Rader, Eamonn Noonan, Beverley J. Shea, Laura Janzen, George A. Wells, Mark Petticrew
  • Published date 2015-05-04
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development, Nutrition, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three months to five years
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.11
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Food supplementation is more effective if better targeted and supervised

    Supplementary food has a small effect on nutritional outcomes. It is more effective for younger and poorer children, when provided in day-care or feeding centres than as take home rations, when the supplemental food provides higher energy and when there is stricter program supervision. There is a positive effect on psychomotor development, but no clear evidence of an effect on cognitive development.

    What did the review study?

    Undernutrition is a severe problem, especially low and middle-income countries, where it contributes to the death of a million children each year. It also increases the risks of lowered cognitive functioning, poor school performance and poor health. Supplementary feeding programs aim to close the energy gap from poor nutrition. They provide additional food or beverages with a high energy level to be consumed alongside regular meals.

    This review examines whether food supplementation is effective in improving the health of disadvantaged children aged 3 months to 5 years, and examines the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of food supplementation programs.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines whether food supplementation is effective in improving the health of disadvantaged children under 5. The review summarizes findings from 32 studies: 21 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and 11 controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs).

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare the effects of supplementary food on children’s physical and psychosocial health to no-feeding or a placebo. Feeding programs could be implemented through day-care, feeding centres, or in the home, though those in a hospital setting were excluded.

    The review includes 32 studies, 21 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 11 controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs). The majority of the included studies (29) are conducted in low- and middle-income countries.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    Is supplementary food effective in improving the health of disadvantaged children under five?

    Supplementary feeding for young, disadvantaged children has small effects on children’s weight and growth in low- and middle-income countries. Children who are younger, and poorer or more undernourished grow more in response to supplementary feeding.

    More leakage occurs from take home rations. Therefore, food supplementation programs implemented through day care centres seem to be more effective, as are those with stricter supervision.

    Both single and multiple interventions were effective for weight gain in children but the effect size for multiple interventions was higher. The effect is also higher for higher energy meals.

    There is a positive effect on psychomotor development, which is development of skills that require both mental and muscular activity (such as crawling, walking, talking). However, there was no clear evidence of an effect on cognitive development.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Targeting and strict supervision may increase the effectiveness of food supplementation programs.

    The supplement should contain at least 30 per cent of the recommended daily intake. Consideration should also be given to providing rations for other family members to avoid leakage.

    There is a need to fund additional trials to examine the impact of supplementary feeding on the psychosocial development of young, disadvantaged children. More research is also needed on the implementation of high-quality interventions and large-scale programmes for supplementary feeding.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies until January 2014.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Jane Barlow, Cathy Bennett, Nick Midgley, Soili Larkin, Yinghui Wei
  • Published date 2015-03-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.6
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Parent-infant psychotherapy for high-risk mothers may be better than no treatment, but no better than alternative treatments

    Parent-infant Psychotherapy (PIP) for parents experiencing adversity, may improve the attachment of infants compared to no treatment, but there is no evidence that PIP has an impact on any other outcomes (e.g. parental mental health). PIP does not appear to be more effective than alternative treatments in improving maternal or infant mental health.

    What did the review study?

    Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) aims to address infant problems such as emotional, behavioural, eating and sleeping disorders. It also aims to address problems in the parents’ relationship with an infant, such as bonding difficulties or low sensitivity. It targets the relationship between the infant and his or her parent, and psychotherapists using this psychodynamic approach deliver it jointly to both the parent and the infant, typically in weekly meetings over the course of five to twenty weeks.

    This review examines if using PIP with mothers experiencing adversity is effective in improving maternal and infant mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The review also assesses the effectiveness of PIP for a mother’s ability to care for her baby, and for infant stress and development.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review compares the effectiveness of Parent-Infant Psychotherapy (PIP) in improving the mental health of parents, the parent-infant relationship and infant emotional wellbeing with that of no treatment, treatment as usual and alternative treatments. The review summarises findings from eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with a total of 846 participants.

    What studies are included?

    The studies included in this review compare the effects of PIP programmes with a control group that received no treatment, treatment-as-usual, or an alternative treatment, such as interaction guidance, psychoeducation, counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Eight randomised controlled trials studies are included, with a total of 846 parents with infants aged up to 2 years. Four studies compare PIP to no treatment or treatment-as-usual, and four to alternative treatments. Three of these studies were conducted in the USA, and one each in Canada, Switzerland and Sweden.The included studies were based on samples that included mothers only, all of whom experienced mental health problems, domestic abuse or substance dependency, and some of whom were also in prison.

    Is PIP effective for high-risk populations?

    Compared with no treatment or treatment-as-usual, PIP participants show an increase in the number of infants securely attached; fewer infants with an avoidant or disorganised attachment style; and more infants moving from insecure to secure attachment. This was maintained at follow up.

    PIP is neither more nor less effective than no treatment or treatment-as-usual in improving maternal mental health, and reflective functioning; infant stress and development; or the quality of the mother-infant interaction.

    Does PIP have any adverse effects?

    Few adverse effects were identified in the included studies. One study showed that infants whose mothers received PIP stayed in the same attachment category or showed a less secure attachment.

    What was the quality of the evidence?

    The quality of the evidence of studies included in this review is weak. Only a few studies were included and these were based on small sample sizes, and several methodological biases were detected. Results, should therefore, be interpreted with caution.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    PIP is a potentially effective method of improving the attachment status of infants of mothers experiencing adversity, but there is no evidence to support its use to improve other aspects of the relationship or parental functioning, nor to support the use of PIP over other treatment approaches. This evidence should be treated with caution due to methodological problems.

    Further high-quality and rigorous research is needed to assess the effectiveness of PIP compared with other models, such as interaction guidance. Further research is also needed to establish the impact of PIP on other potentially important outcomes such as parental mental health and reflective functioning.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until January 2014.

  • Norwegian

    OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Psykoterapi til foreldre og spedbarn for høyrisikomødre kan være bedre enn ingen behandling, men ikke bedre enn alternative behandlinger

    Psykoterapi til foreldre og spedbarn (PFS) for foreldre som opplever motgang i livet, kan øke spedbarns tilknytning sammenlignet med ingen behandling, men det er ingenting som tilsier at PFS har noen effekt på andre utfall (som foreldrenes mentale helse). PFS ser ikke ut til å være mer effektivt enn alternative behandlinger når det gjelder å bedre den mentale helsen til mor eller spedbarn.

    Hva undersøkte oversikten?

    PFS har som formål å bedre emosjonelle problemer, atferdsproblemer, spiseproblemer og søvnproblemer hos spedbarn. Terapien tar også for seg problemer knyttet til foreldrenes relasjon til spedbarnet, for eksempel tilknytningsvansker eller lav sensitivitet. PFS gis til foreldre og barn sammen, og ofte gjennom ukentlige møter over 5 til 20 uker.

    Denne oversikten undersøker om bruk av PFS til spedbarnsmødre som opplever motgang i livet er effektivt med tanke på å bedre den mentale helsen til mor og barn samt mor-barn-relasjonen. Oversikten vurderer også hvor effektivt PFS er når det gjelder mors omsorgsevne, og stress og utvikling hos barnet.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell sammenligner effekten av PFS når det gjelder å bedre foreldrenes mentale helse, relasjonen mellom foreldre og barn og barnets emosjonelle velferd med effekten av ingen behandling, vanlig oppfølging helsetjenesten eller annen behandling. Oversikten oppsummerer funn fra åtte randomiserte kontrollerte studier med totalt 846 deltakere.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert?

    Studiene som er inkludert i denne oversikten, sammenligner effekten av PFS-programmer med en kontrollgruppe som mottok ingen behandling, eller med annen behandling som samspillsveiledning, psykoedukasjon, rådgivning eller kognitiv atferdsterapi.

    Åtte randomiserte, kontrollerte studier er inkludert, med totalt 846 foreldre med barn opp til 2 års alder. Fire studier sammenligner PFS med ingen behandling eller vanlig oppfølging i helsetjenesten, og fire studier sammenligner PFS med annen behandling. Tre av disse studiene ble gjennomført i USA, én i Canada, én i Sveits og én i Sverige. Studiene inkluderte mødre med psykiske helseproblemer, problemer med vold i nære relasjoner eller rusavhengighet, og noen av dem satt også i fengsel.

    Er PFS effektivt for høyrisikobefolkningsgrupper?

    Sammenlignet med ingen behandling eller vanlig helsetjeneste viser deltakere som fikk PFS, en økning i antallet barn med trygg tilknytning, færre barn med en unnvikende eller desorganisert tilknytningsstil og flere spedbarn som gikk over fra utrygg til trygg tilknytning. Dette så man også ved oppfølging over tid.

    PFS er verken mer eller mindre effektivt enn ingen behandling eller vanlig oppfølgning i helsetjenesten når det gjelder mors mentale helse eller evne til selvrefleksjon, stress og utvikling hos barn eller på samspillet mor- og barn.

    Har PFS noen bivirkninger?

    Få bivirkninger ble identifisert i de inkluderte studiene. Én studie viste at spedbarn med mødre som fikk PFS, ble værende i den samme tilknytningskategorien eller utviste en mindre trygg tilknytning.

    Hvordan var kvaliteten på studieresultatene?

    Kvaliteten på resultatene er lav. Bare noen få studier ble inkludert, og disse var basert på et lite antall deltakere. Det var også risiko for systematiske skjevheter i studiene. Resultatene må derfor tolkes med forsiktighet.

    Hva innebærer funnene i denne oversikten?

    PFS er en potensielt effektiv metode for å øke spedbarns tilknytning til mødre som opplever motgang i livet, men det er ingenting som tilsier at det kan brukes til å bedre andre aspekter ved relasjonen eller foreldrenes fungering, og heller ingenting som tilsier at PFS bør brukes fremfor andre behandlingsformer. Denne kunnskapen må behandles med forsiktighet på grunn av metodiske svakheter ved studiene.

    Det trengs flere robuste studier av høy kvalitet for å vurdere hvor effektivt PFS er sammenlignet med andre tiltak for eksempel samspillsveiledning. Det trengs også mer forskning for å fastslå hvordan PFS virker inn på andre utfall som foreldrenes mentale helse og selvrefleksjon.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Forfatterne søkte etter studier som ble publisert frem til januar 2014. Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell ble publisert 2. mars 2015.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Trine Filges, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Ditte Andersen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen
  • Published date 2015-03-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.8

Additional Info

  • Authors Maia Lindstrøm, Madina Saidj, Krystyna Kowalski, Trine Filges, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2015-03-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Family behavior therapy (FBT) for young people in treatment for illicit non-opioid drug use
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.9

Additional Info

  • Authors Sabine Wollscheid, Heather Menzies Munthe-Kaas, Karianne Thune Hammerstrøm, Eamonn Noonan
  • Published date 2015-03-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Effect of interventions to facilitate communication between families or single young people with minority language background and public services
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.7
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Improving communication between public services and minority language speakers

    No particular approach to interpretation (in-person, telephone, bilingual staff or ad hoc) works better than others to improve the quality of communication and patient satisfaction for people with a minority language background that use public services. An enhanced English as a Second Language (ESL) class did increase parents’ involvement in children’s schoolwork, and their English skills improved more than with a regular ESL course.

    What is this review about?

    As a result of increased immigration, many people having a minority language background use public services. In principle, all people should have access to services, and equal access is sometimes required by law.

    Well-functioning communication is important for effective help from public services. Mis-communication can lead to wrong decisions and poor results. Services may need to be able to provide communication tailored to people with limited skills in the main languages spoken in the country they are residing in.

    The review includes studies in the United States, of aids used to improve communication between immigrant children, youth or families with a minority language background, and public services such as child welfare or health services.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This systematic review examines whether aids for communication are effective between public services and children and youth, or families with an immigrant background. The researchers analyse relevant studies, and the team included four comparative studies, three for health services and one for education.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Which communication aids are included?

    Communication aids fall into three categories: (a) those to help verbal or direct communication such as different types of interpretation services; (b) those to help written communication, such as translation of case documents or information materials; and (c) broader aids to improve communication between service providers and service users. This category includes, for instance, second language training for parents in order to improve their ability to communicate with their child’s school.

    How effective are communication aids used?

    Three studies conducted within health services compare the effect of different types of interpretation service or of using bilingual personnel.

    There is no clear indication that any particular approach to interpretation works better than others. None of in-person, telephone, bilingual staff or ad hoc interpreting could demonstrate a clear advantage over other approaches. There is uncertainty about the reliability of this finding because the studies had limitations, including small scale.

    One study of the effect of two different training programmes of ESL suggests that:

    • An enhanced ESL class (where the course was tailored to immigrant parents) improved parents’ involvement in students’ schoolwork and parents’ English skills more than a regular ESL course.
    • There is uncertainty about the reliability of this finding because the study had important limitations, including small scale. Similar studies of more robust design are needed in order to draw firm conclusions.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    There is in most cases no significant difference in communication quality and patient satisfaction between different means of aiding communication between people having a minority language background and public services workers. One study suggests that an ESL course integrating parent involvement knowledge with behaviour was more effective than standard ESL.

    There is a need for additional studies of communication aids used between this population and public services, particularly for services outside health care, such as child welfare, school and early childcare, work and welfare services, and prison and probation services.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published up to January 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Trine Filges, Geir Smedslund, Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Active labour market programme (ALMP) participation for unemployment insurance recipients
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.2

Additional Info

  • Authors Carlton J. Fong, Kathleen Murphy, John D. Westbrook, Minda Markle
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Behavioral, psychological, educational and vocational interventions to facilitate employment outcomes for cancer survivors
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.5
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Employment status of cancer survivors improve with multi-component support programmes

    There is promising evidence that psychosocial interventions may improve employment status for cancer survivors, but don’t have an effect on hours of work or sick leave. These interventions range from information sessions and vocational training workshops to counselling and physical therapy.

    What is the review about?

    Employment is an important stabilizing factor for cancer survivors. A study from 2009 showed that the rate of unemployment among cancer survivors is 34 percent, more than twice that of a comparable healthy population.

    This Campbell review estimates the effects of psychosocial interventions for adult cancer survivors. It focuses on interventions to improve employment outcomes such as employment status, return-to-work, absenteeism and time spent on sick leave.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review reports the effects of psychosocial interventions on employment outcomes for cancer survivors. The review summarises findings from 12 studies covering 2,151 cancer survivors.

    What studies are included?

    This review includes 12 studies published between 1980 and 2013 that evaluate the effects of psychosocial interventions on the employment of cancer survivors. Eight of the studies are randomised controlled trials and four are quasi-experimental studies.

    Due to the nature of the disease, cancer survivors tend to be older. The majority of studies had participants over the age of 50.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    What kinds of psychosocial interventions are there?

    Interventions include education, training, psychological support, environmental adjustments or accommodations, flexible or job-sharing work conditions, or job search and placement assistance. Most interventions include more than one component to address barriers to employment.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Whilst there are too few studies to provide evidence in support of specific practices, multi-component interventions that incorporate information or education training, counselling or coping skills sessions and also physical exercise may be the best way to benefit cancer survivors’ employment outcomes.

    Additional research should focus on trials that collect information on employment status and not solely self-reported measures of quality of life. Studies should also describe in more detail an intervention’s features and duration.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Eleanor Ott, Paul Montgomery
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Interventions to improve the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    There is no rigorous evidence on how to improve outcomes for resettled refugees

    There is insufficient evidence to determine whether programmes to improve the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees are effective or not. This does not mean that these programmes do not have important effects, only that the available evidence does not indicate what these effects may be.

    What is the review about?

    Over 59.5 million people have been forced from their homes globally of which 19.5 million are classified as refugees. Refugee resettlement programmes are offered to those who have particular needs or who must be moved to countries other than those in which they initially seek protection: 28 countries currently offer UNHCR-registered programmes, including the USA, Canada, and Australia. The USA alone invests $1 billion in resettlement programmes each year.

    One aim of resettlement programmes is to facilitate the economic integration of refugees. Support programmes include training, education, and mental health services. But resettled refugees often experience high levels of unemployment and poverty.

    This review assesses the effects of programmes to improve the self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees. Outcomes are employment, cash assistance, income levels, ability to keep a job, and quality of life.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of programmes on the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees. The review identified 23 relevant studies but none of these could be included in the analysis due weaknesses in study design.

    What studies were included in the review?

    Eligible studies examine outcomes for refugees who have been part of a government resettlement programme and who were between the ages of 18 and 64 years at the time of the programme.

    No studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. Twenty-three studies were identified which were not included in the review because their design meant that the effects measured could not be clearly attributed to the programmes.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    What helps refugees and are resettlement programs effective?

    The lack of available evidence means we do not know for sure how to help resettled refugees improve their economic integration or well-being. This does not mean that programmes for resettled refugees do not have effects, either positive or negative. The available evidence is insufficient to determine what the effects of the programmes are. Resettlement programmes also meet their goal in moving refugees and may have many other positive effects not explored here, such as on the safety of refugees.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The lack of knowledge and rigorous research on the impacts of programming for resettled refugees is surprising given the political importance of such programmes, the levels of investment involved, and the number of people affected.

    Such weaknesses have been officially recognised by, for example, the United States Government Accountability Office, which admits that little is still known “about which approaches are most effective in improving the economic status of refugees.”

    Policy makers are faced with the challenge of having to make decisions without a robust research base to inform them.

    There is a knowledge gap about the effects of programmes to support resettled refugees which should be filled by rigorous research. Studies should be informed by clear questions and objectives. Robust methodologies should be used, including appropriate comparison groups and the planned collection of data on key outcomes.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for interventions from studies from 1980 until September 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Additional Info

  • Authors Trine Filges, Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen, Majken Mosegaard Svendsen, Krystyna Kowalski, Lars Benjaminsen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural therapies for young people in outpatient treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.3
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Cognitive-behavioural therapies to treat non-opioid drug use in young people is no better or worse than other treatments

    Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is no better – or worse – in reducing youth’s drug use than other interventions when used in outpatient settings.

    What did the review study?

    Youth’s use of non-opioid drugs such as cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy or cocaine is a severe problem worldwide. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is widely used as a substance abuse treatment with young people. CBT aims to reduce the drug use of adolescents by improving their skills to problem solve, cope with stress and by enhancing their self confidence to resist opportunities to use drugs.

    This review looks at whether CBT is better at reducing the use of non-opioid drugs among young people aged 13-21 than other treatments provided to adolescents in outpatient settings.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) when used in outpatient settings to reduce drug use (of e.g. cannabis, amphetamines,

    ecstasy, or cocaine) among young people aged 13-21. The review summarizes findings from seven studies, all of which were

    randomised controlled trials.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare the effects of CBT on youth’s abstinence, drug use and other outcomes with a broad range of other, mostly therapy-based, treatments. CBT interventions are included which are delivered by professionals to clients individually or in groups in outpatient settings. They may have additional components, such as motivational interviewing, but CBT was the primary intervention.

    Seven unique studies are included, reported in 17 papers. All seven studies are randomised controlled trials, six of which were conducted in the US, and one in the Netherlands. Together, the studies involve 953 study participants.

    Is CBT more or less effective than other treatments used in outpatient settings to reduce the use of non-opioid drugs among adolescents aged 13-21?

    CBT is no better than other treatments in ensuring total abstinence from non-opioid drugs or in reducing their use among adolescents who are in substance abuse treatment in an outpatient setting. This overall result is the same no matter if CBT is used with an additional component of motivational interviewing or not. There are also no better effects from CBT on other outcomes such as youth’s social functioning, school problems, criminal activity and treatment retention.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    CBT is not any better at reducing the use of non-opioid drugs among adolescents than other treatments when used in outpatient settings.

    The review is based on only a small number of studies, several of which show weaknesses and flaws in their methodology. There is a need to fund additional trials of CBT interventions, based on rigorous study designs and with a potential to add to the global CBT evidence base. The majority of included CBT studies were conducted in the U.S. The findings of this review may therefore only have limited applicability in other social and cultural settings. Future trials of CBT interventions should be conducted in a broader range of countries.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies until September 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Page 8 of 18

Contact us